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RF Network Design & Planning

Introduction
The high level life cycle of the RF network planning process can be summarised as follows : To help the operator to identify their RF design requirement Optional Discuss and agree RF design parameters, assumptions and objectives with the customer Coverage requirement Traffic requirement Various level of design (ROM to detail RF design)

Comparative Analysis

Site Realisation

Issuing of search ring Cand. assessment Site survey, design, approval Drive test (optional)

RF Design requirement RF Design Implementation RF Design Frequency plan Neighbour list RF OMC data Optimisation

Comparative Analysis
This is an optional step This is intended to :-

Help an existing operator in building/expanding their network Help a new operator in identifying their RF network requirement, e.g. where their network should be built For the comparative analysis, we would need to : Identify all network that are competitors to the customer Design drive routes that take in the high density traffic areas of interest Include areas where the customer has no or poor service and the competitors have service

Coverage Design Inputs by BSNL


Coverage Thresholds Indoor Coverage : Signal Level measured at street better than 65 dBm. Indoor coverage to be provided in commercial complexes, hotels,technology parks etc. In Car Coverage: Signal Level measured at street better than 75 dBm. In Car coverage to be provided in residential areas, highways, tourist spots etc. Outdoor Coverage : Signal level measured at street better than 85 dBm. All remaining areas to be covered with Outdoor coverage.

These are general guidelines for planning , specific areas not provided.

Capacity Design Inputs by BSNL


Frequency spectrum available 6.2 MHz (31 channels). Average traffic per sub for RF design : 50 mErlang. Synthesizer frequency hopping can be used. GOS: 2%

Existing network Database


Total No. of sites with configuration Site details eg location(Lat-Long), Antenna height ,azimuth,

50mE = 3600* 50 * 10-3 = 180 seconds = 3 min = Average Voice call holding time (urban) Rural = 1.5min = 25mErlangs
1 Erlang of network traffic(TCHs) = 20 no. of users with 50mE individual traffic (call holding)

RF Network Design
There are 2 parts to the RF network design to meet the : Capacity requirement Coverage requirement For the RF Coverage Design
Digitised Databases

CW Drive Testing

Customer Requirements

Propagation Model

RF Coverage Design

Link Budget

CW Drive Testing
CW drive test can be used for the following purposes : Propagation model tuning Assessment of the suitability of candidate sites, from both coverage and interference aspect CW drive test process can be broken down to :Test Preparation
Equipment required BTS antenna selection Channel selection Power setting Drive route planning Test site selection

Propagation Test Data Processing

Transmitter setup Receiver setup

Drive test Transmitter dismantle

Measurement averaging Report generation

CW Drive Testing - Propagation Test


Scanning Receiver Setup - HP 7475A Receiver Example

HP 7475A Receiver

Propagation Model
Standard Macrocell Model for Asset Lp (dB) = K1 + K2 log(d) + K3 Hm + K4 log(Hm) + K5 log(Heff) + K6 log(Heff) log(d) + K7 Diffraction + Clutter factor where Lp, Diffraction, Clutter factor are in dB d, Hm, Heff are in m

It is based on the Okumura-Hata empirical model, with a number of additional features to enhance its flexibility Known to be valid for frequencies from 150MHz to 2GHz Applies in condition : Base station height : 30 - 200 m Mobile height : 1 - 10 m Distance : 1 - 20 km An optional second intercept and slope (K1, K2) for the creation of a twopiece model with the slope changing at the specified breakpoint distance.

Link Budget
Link Budget Element of a GSM Network
BTS Antenna Gain Max. Path Loss Fade Margin

LNA (optional)

Penetration Loss

Feeder Loss ACE Loss BTS Transmit Power Diversity Gain BTS Receiver Sensitivity

MS Antenna Gain, Body and Cable Loss

Mobile Transmit Power

Mobile Receiver Sensitivity

Link Budget
BTS Transmit Power Maximum transmit power GSM900 and 1800 networks use radios with 46dBm maximum transmit power ACE Loss Includes all diplexers, combiners and connectors. Depends on the ACE configuration The ACE configuration depends on the number of TRXs and combiners used

No of TRXs 1 or 2 1 or 2 3 or 4 3 or 4

Network GSM900 GSM1800 GSM900 GSM1800

ACE Configuration 2 antennas per cell, diplexer 2 antennas per cell, diplexer 2 antennas per cell, diplexer + hybrid combiner 2 antennas per cell, diplexer + hybrid combiner

Downlink ACE Loss (dB) 1.0 1.2 4.4 4.4

Link Budget
Penetration Loss Penetration loss depends on the building structure and material Penetration loss is included for in-building link budget Typical value used for Asia-Pacific environment (if country specific information is not available) : Dense Urban : 20 dB Urban : 18 dB Suburban : 15 dB Rural : 9 dB Body Loss Typical value of 2dB body loss is used MS Antenna Gain A typical mobile antenna gain of 2.2 dBi is used

Link Budget
Link Budget Example (GSM900)
UPLINK MS Transmit Power Cable Loss MS Antenna Gain Body Loss Penetration Loss Slow Fade Margin Max. Path Loss BTS Antenna Gain LNA Gain Feeder Loss ACE Loss Diversity Gain BTS Receiver Sensitivity DOWNLINK BTS Transmit Power ACE Loss Feeder Loss LNA Gain BTS Antenna Gain Max. Path Loss Slow Fade Margin Penetration Loss Body Loss MS Antenna Gain Cable Loss Diversity Gain MS Receiver Sensitivity

33 dBm 0 dB 2.2 dBi 2 dB W X Y 18 dBi 0 dB 2 dB 0 dB 4 dB -107 dBm

46 dBm Z 2 dB 0 dB 18 dBi Y X W 2 dB 2.2 dBi 0 dB 0 dB -102 dBm

Site Realisation
Candidate Assessment Report-Site Survey Forms Site survey Forms for all suitable candidates for the search ring For each candidates : Location (latitude/longitude) Location map showing the relative location of the candidates and also the search ring Candidate information (height, owner etc) Photographs (360 set, rooftop, access, building) Possible antenna orientations Possible base station equipment location Information for any existing antennas Planning reports/comments (restrictions, possibilities of approval etc.)

Site Realisation-Site Survey Form


TECHNICAL SITE SURVEY FORM
Date June 12, 2004 BSNL Circle CITY / SSA Site ID BHPAT-09 BSNL/ NBSNL Site Name Owner Name Address & Contact No. Patna 09 Bihar

Final RF Configuration Form Base Station configuration Azimuth Antenna height Antenna type Down tilt Antenna location Feeder type and length BTS type Transmit power Transceiver configuration

Construction

Container/Room

Tower Type

GBT / Rooftop

Bldg. Hgt

10 m.

Tower Hgt

6 m. 26 21' 25.9" N

Antenna Ht

20 m. 85 48 ' 31.2" E

Coordinate

LAT

LONG

GSM ANTENNA : TYPE SECTOR 1 AP909014-2 AZ 85 M-TILT +1.9


Spheroid:

SECTOR 2

AP909014-2

185

+0.7

SECTOR 3

AP909014-2

307

+1.3

Candidate No. Assess: Morphology/Clutter Accept/ Reject Priority

Site Blockage if Any Remark

Nokia Representative Name: Signature: Name:

BSNL Survey Team Representative

Signature:

Traffic Engineering

Spectrum Available

Reuse factor

Maximum number of TRX per cell

Traffic Requirement

Channel loading

No of TCH available

Traffic offered

Subscriber supported

Traffic Engineering
Traffic Requirement The Erlang per subscriber

Grade of Service (GoS) GoS is expressed as the percentage of call attempts that are blocked during peak traffic Most cellular systems are designed to a blocking rate of 1% to 5% during busy hour

Traffic Engineering
After determining the number of TCH available and the traffic requirements, the traffic offered is calculated using the Erlang B table For example, for a 2% GoS and 3 TRX configuration, the traffic offered is 14 Erlang If the traffic per subscriber is 50mE/subscriber, then the total subscribers supported per sector = 280

For a uniform traffic distribution network, the number of sites required for the traffic requirement is :Total sites Total subscribers Subscriber supported per site

Traffic Engineering
Erlang B Table
N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1% 1.20% 1.50% 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.15 0.17 0.19 0.46 0.49 0.54 0.87 0.92 0.99 1.36 1.43 1.52 1.91 2 2.11 2.5 2.6 2.74 3.13 3.25 3.4 3.78 3.92 4.09 4.46 4.61 4.81 5.16 5.32 5.54 5.88 6.05 6.29 6.61 6.8 7.05 7.35 7.56 7.82 8.11 8.33 8.61 8.88 9.11 9.41 9.65 9.89 10.2 10.4 10.7 11 11.2 11.5 11.8 12 12.3 12.7 12.8 13.1 13.5 13.7 14 14.3 14.5 14.8 15.2 2% 0.02 0.22 0.6 1.09 1.66 2.28 2.94 3.63 4.34 5.08 5.84 6.61 7.4 8.2 9.01 9.83 10.7 11.5 12.3 13.2 14 14.9 15.8 3% 0.03 0.28 0.72 1.26 1.88 2.54 3.25 3.99 4.75 5.53 6.33 7.14 7.97 8.8 9.65 10.5 11.4 12.2 13.1 14.0 14.9 15.8 16.7 5% 0.05 0.38 0.9 1.52 2.22 2.96 3.74 4.54 5.37 6.22 7.08 7.95 8.83 9.73 10.6 11.5 12.5 13.4 14.3 15.2 16.2 17.1 18.1 7% 0.1 0.5 1.1 1.8 2.5 3.3 4.1 5 5.9 6.8 7.7 8.6 9.5 10.5 11.4 12.4 13.4 14.3 15.3 16.3 17.3 18.2 19.2 10% 0.11 0.6 1.27 2.05 2.88 3.76 4.67 5.6 6.55 7.51 8.49 9.47 10.5 11.5 12.5 13.5 14.5 15.5 16.6 17.6 18.7 19.7 20.7 15% 0.18 0.8 1.6 2.5 3.45 4.44 5.46 6.5 7.55 8.62 9.69 10.8 11.9 13 14.1 15.2 16.3 17.4 18.5 19.6 20.8 21.9 23 20% 30% 40% 50% 0.25 0.43 0.67 1 1 1.45 2 2.73 1.93 2.63 3.48 4.59 2.95 3.89 5.02 6.5 4.01 5.19 6.6 8.44 5.11 6.51 8.19 10.4 6.23 7.86 9.8 12.4 7.37 9.21 11.4 14.3 8.52 10.6 13 16.3 9.68 12 14.7 18.3 10.9 13.3 16.3 20.3 12 14.7 18 22.2 13.2 16.1 19.6 24.2 14.4 17.5 21.2 26.2 15.6 18.9 22.9 28.2 16.8 20.3 24.5 30.2 18 21.7 26.2 32.2 19.2 23.1 27.8 34.2 20.4 24.5 29.5 36.2 21.6 25.9 31.2 38.2 22.8 27.3 32.8 40.2 24.1 28.7 34.5 42.1 25.3 30.1 36.1 44.1