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Capnocytophaga canimorsus Spingomonas paucimobilis Moraxella spp.

Moraxella nonliquefaciens Moraxella lacunata Moraxella osloensis

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Gram-negative Facultative anaerobe Pleomorphic Capnophilic Color of colonies- pink to yellowish Non-hemolytic except: C.haemolytica

PATHOGENICITY: Oral diseases & brain abscess Oro pharynx (periodontal diseases, opthalmic lesions, RT infections, traumatic pericarditis, mediastinal or cervical abscesses & peritonitis)

5 NORMAL INHABITANTS OF ORAL CAVITY: C. ochracea C. gingivalis C. sputigena C. haemolyticus and C. granulose *** Oxidase & Catalase (-)

Capnocytophaga canimorsus
Normal inhabitants of the oral cavity of dogs and cats
Oxidase and Catalase (+) Penicillin is the drug of choice

Gram negative

Non-fermentative bacilli
Rarely involved in human infections Flavobacterium regarded as members of the genus at

one time Sensitive to SXT and Fluoroquinolones Resistant to amino glycosides, Clindamycin and Polymyxin B. Susceptibility to B-lactame antibiotics is variable

6 Species: Spingobacterium

-S. spiritovorum -S. multivorum -S. mizutae -S. antarcticum -S. faecium -S. thalpophilum

2 most frequently isolated species: S.multivorum -isolated from blood of patients (septicemia & peritonitis) S. spiritovorum -isolated from clinical specimens (urine,blood & hospital environments) ***Very similar biochemically.


-produces mannitol, ethanol and rhamnose (S.mutivorum) Both produces yellow pigment Both were identified & processed for:
DNase Oxidase Urease activity Motility test

Spingomonas Gram negative (-), rod-shaped

Non-spore forming
Strictly aerobic Chemoheterotrophic

Ubiquinone 10
36 different species 2 clinically signifant: S. paucimobilis & S.


S. paucimobilis
-isolated environmentally from water, including swimming pools, hospital equipment & laboratory supplies. -causative agent of peritonitis associated with chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, septicemia, meningitis, leg ulcer, empyema and splenic and brain abscesses

Biochemical charcteristics: yellow pigment on MAK agar (48hrs. for growth on SBA) Isolates: Weakly oxidase (+) (Some strains may be (-) Motile at 18oC-22oC but not 37oC. Urease (-) Indole (-) Oxidizers

Resistant to antimicrobial agents

Susceptible to :
Aminoglycosides Tetracyclines Chloramphenicol SXT Polymyxin B

*3rd generation Cephalosporins and


Spingomonas S. parapaucimobilis
isolated from sputum, urine and vaginal specimens Isolates have been found: Esterases Endotoxin Lipases Phosphatases S. parapaucimobilis resembles S. paucimobilis

Except isolates of S. parapaucimobilis:

H2S (+) by the lead acetate method Simon citrate (+)

DNase (-)

Family Moraxellaceae named after the Swiss ophthalmologist Victor Morax Coccobacillary to bacillary gram-negative bacilli Non-motile, but some has a twitching mobility Encapsulated with pili 13 known Moraxella spp.

Biochemical characteristics:

Strictly aerobic Strongly Oxidase (+) Beta-lactamase, Catalase and Dnase (+) Biochemically inert to carbohydrate oxidation Susceptible to Penicillin

Cultural characteristics: Smooth, opaque, gray to white, colony may be swept intact- hockey pockey 48 hour colony- Wagon wheel Grow on Nutrient Agar at 22C Failure to grow in TMA (Thayer Martin Agar) Reduces nitrate to nitrite Assacharolytic, tributyrin hydrolysis POSITIVE


Conjunctivitis Host range: Humans and mammals Person-to-person especially in hospitals Environmental contamination Aerosol transmission

Mode of Transmission:

Habitat: Mucous membranes of human & lower animals Isolated from: - respiratory tract - urinary tract (genitourethral tract) - eye - inflammatory secretions of the middle ear - maxillary sinus - bronchial aspirate - nasal cavity - spleen - cerebrospinal fluid - joints - bursa


Pathogenecity/Toxicity: o Moraxella catarrhalis - acute otitis media - chronic & serious otitis media - acute & chronic sinusitis - upper and lower respiratory tract infections - systemic infections - meningitis - bacteremia - endocarditis - keratitis - suppurative arthritis

o Moraxella nonliquefaciens

- upper & lower respiratory tract infections o Moraxella lacunata - endocarditis - conjunctivitis - otolaryngologic infections - keratitis

Moraxella osloensis - osteomyelitis - meningitis - arthritis

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY All are susceptible to Penicillin except M.catarrhalis. M.catarrhalis resistant to: -Penicillin -Ampicillin -Amoxicillin -Vancomycin -Clindamycin Susceptible to Amoxicillin,Tetracyclines, Rifampin, and Erythromycin

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to 2-5% phenol 1% sodium hypochlorite 4% formaldehyde 2% glutaraldehyde 70% ethanol 70% propanol 2% peracetic acid 3-6% hydrogen peroxide Iodine

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Moraxella bovis -survive up to 3 days on insect legs M. catarrhalis - survive in expectorated sputum for at least 3 weeks Moraxella nonliquefaciens Second most commonly isolated member of the genus after M.catarrhalis. Normal flora of respiratory tract; rarely cause disease in human Can survive up to 40 weeks (-70 & -80C)

Cultural characteristics: Smooth, translucent to semi-opaque; occasionally, colonies spread & pit agar in 5%BA Non-lactose fermented in MAC Biochemical characteristics: Catalase (+) DNase, Urease and Gelatin hydrolysis (-) Phenylalanine deaminase (PNA) negative Digests Loefflers Slant (-);Sodium Acetate Utilization (-) Growth supported by Nutrient Agar

Bacteremia Keratitis Endophthalmitis

Moraxella osloensis -grows and produces an alkaline reaction in acetate medium -normal flora in genitourinary tract -Urease (+) -PDA (+) -a systemic serious disease

PATHOGENECITY: -endocarditis -meningitis -osteomyelitis -septic arthritis -vaginitis -bacteremia


Moraxella lacunata Common conjunctival isolate small coccobacillus causative agent of blepharoconjunctivitis Gelatin (+) Urease (-) Unable to grow on MAC agar PDA (+)

SPECIES Capnocytophaga

MAC Agar -+

BAP Agar +

Catalase -+ -

Dnase -


Spingomonas M.nonliquefacien s M.osloensis M.lacunata

+ -

+ + + +

+ + -

+ -