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Louisiana Tech University

Ruston, LA 71272
Momentum Balance

Steven A. Jones
BIEN 501/CMEN 513
Friday, March 17, 2006
Louisiana Tech University
Ruston, LA 71272
Momentum Balance
Learning Objectives:
1. State the motivation for curvilinear coordinates.
2. State the meanings of terms in the Transport Theorem
3. Differentiate between momentum as a property to be transported
and velocity as the transporting agent.
4. Show the relationship between the total time derivative in the
Transport Theorem and Newtons second law.
5. Apply the Transport Theorem to a simple case (Poiseuille flow).
6. Identify the types of forces in fluid mechanics.
7. Explain the need for a shear stress model in fluid mechanics.

The Stress Tensor.
Appendix A.5
Show components of the stress tensor in Cartesian and cylindrical
coordinates. Vectors and Geometry
Louisiana Tech University
Ruston, LA 71272
Motivation for Curvilinear Coordinates
Fully developed pipe flow (Poiseuille)
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2
max
1
R
r
u u
z
Flow around a small particle (Stokes Flow)

Applications:
How fast does a blood cell settle?
What is the motion of a catalyzing particle?
Application: What is the
flow stress on an endothelial
cell?
Louisiana Tech University
Ruston, LA 71272
Cylindrical coordinates are
simpler because of the
boundary conditions:
Cylindrical Coordinates: Examples
R r u = = at 0

u cos
2
1
2
3
1
3
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ =

r
R
r
R
v u
r
Fully developed pipe flow (Poiseuille)
In cartesian coordinates, there are three velocity components
to worry about.
In spherical coordinates, one of these components is zero (u

).
u
u
sin
4
1
4
3
1
3
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ =

r
R
r
R
v u
r
u

Louisiana Tech University
Ruston, LA 71272
Stokes (Creeping Flow)
In cartesian coordinates, there are three velocity components to worry about.
To confirm the three components, consider the point (x, y, z) = (1, 1, 1).

Slice parallel to the equator (say the equator is in the xz plane):
This velocity vector has an x and z
component (visible above) and a y
component (visible to the left).
Top View
x
z
x
z
x
y
x
z
Louisiana Tech University
Ruston, LA 71272
Momentum Balance
Consider flow entering a
control volume:
The rate at which momentum is generated in a chunk of
fluid that is entering the control volume is governed by
the Reynolds Transport Theorem
( ) ( ) ( )
} } }
+
c
c
=
m m m
S R R
dA dV
t
dV
dt
d
n v

Louisiana Tech University


Ruston, LA 71272
Momentum Balance
Consider flow entering a
control volume:
The property in this case is momentum per unit
volume, = v. Both and v are bold (vectors).
( ) ( ) ( )
} } }
+
c
c
=
m m m
S R R
dA dV
t
dV
dt
d
n v

Louisiana Tech University


Ruston, LA 71272
Momentum Balance
It is useful to recall the meanings of the terms.
( ) ( )
( )
( )
} } }
+
c
c
=
m m m
S R R
dA dV
t
dV
dt
d
n v v
v
v

Rate at which the


momentum of the fluid
passing through the
sample volume
increases (production of
momentum).
Rate at which
the momentum
increases inside
the sample
volume (partial
derivative)
Flux of
momentum
through the
surface of the
control volume.
Louisiana Tech University
Ruston, LA 71272
Say What?
The momentum of the car passing through the
location of measurement is increasing.
The momentum at the location of measurement is
not increasing.
Location of
Measurement
25 mph
40 mph
Rate at which the
momentum of the fluid
passing through the
sample volume
increases (production of
momentum).
Louisiana Tech University
Ruston, LA 71272
Momentum Balance & Newton
The momentum balance is a statement of
Newtons second law.
( ) ( )
( )
( )
} } }
+
c
c
=
m m m
S R R
dA dV
t
dV
dt
d
n v v
v
v

Production of Momentum
(Force per unit volume).
Eulerian form of the time
derivative of momentum
(i.e. ma per unit volume).
Louisiana Tech University
Ruston, LA 71272
Momentum Balance & Newton
( ) ( )
( )
( )
} } }
+
c
c
=
m m m
S R R
dA dV
t
dV
dt
d
n v v
v
v

Lagrangian time
derivative
Eulerian form of the time
derivative of momentum
(i.e. ma per unit volume).
Eulerian time derivative
( ) ( ) ( )
} } }
+ =
m m m
R S R
dV dA dV
dt
d
f t v
Louisiana Tech University
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Momentum Balance
It is also useful to note that this is three equations,
one for each velocity component.
( ) ( )
( )
( )
} } }
+
c
c
=
m m m
S R R
dA dV
t
dV
dt
d
n v v
v
v

( ) ( )
( )
( )
} } }
+
c
c
=
m m m
S R R
dA v dV
t
v
dV v
dt
d
n v
1
1
1

For example, the v


1
component of this equation is:
But note that the full vector v remains in the last integral.
Louisiana Tech University
Ruston, LA 71272
Momentum Surface Flux
The roles of the velocity components differ, depending
on which surface is under consideration.
( )
( )
}

m
S
dA v n v
1

The momentum being


carried through the surface.
The velocity vector that
carries momentum
through the surface.
v
1

v
2

In the figure to the left: The velocity
component perpendicular to the
plane (v
2
) carries momentum (v
1
)
through the plane.

Louisiana Tech University
Ruston, LA 71272
Momentum Shell Balance
Fully developed pipe flow (Poiseuille)
dr
dz
Assumptions:
1. Steady, incompressible flow (no changes with time)
2. Fully developed flow
3. Velocity is a function of r only (v=v(r))
4. No radial or circumferential velocity components.
5. Pressure changes linearly with z and is independent of r.
Note: 3, 4 and 5 follow from 1 and 2, but it takes a while to demonstrate the
connection.
v
r
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The Control Volume
The control volume is an annular region dz long
and dr thick. We will be concerned with 4
surfaces:
t
ru

t
rr

t
rz

Outer Cylinder
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The Control Volume
Inner Cylinder
t
ru

t
rr

t
rz

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The Control Volume
t
zu

t
zr

t
zz

Left Annulus
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t
zu

t
zr

t
zz

The Control Volume
Right Annulus
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Continuity
The mass entering the annular region = the mass exiting.
dr
dz
Thus:
( ) dz z r v dr r z r v dr r
z z
+ = , 2 ) , ( 2 t t
This equation is automatically satisfied by assumption
3 (velocity does not depend on z).
Louisiana Tech University
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Momentum in Poiseuille Flow
The momentum entering the annular region - the
momentum leaving= momentum destruction. (Newtons
2
nd
law F=ma)
dr
dz
In fluid mechanics, we talk about momentum per unit volume
and force per unit volume.
( )
F
Dt
v D
=

For example, the force per unit volume caused by


gravity is g since F=mg. (Units are g cm/s
2
).
Louisiana Tech University
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Momentum
( ) ( ) dr r z u z u
z z
t 2
Rate of momentum flow into the annulus is:
Again, because velocity does not change with z, these
two terms cancel one another.
( ) ( ) dr r dz z u dz z u
z z
t 2 + +
Rate of momentum flow out is:
dr
dz
Louisiana Tech University
Ruston, LA 71272
Shearing Force
( ) 0 =
c
c
rz
r
r
t
Denote the shearing force at the cylindrical surface at r as t(r).
The combined shearing force on the outer and inner cylinders
is:
dr
dz
Note the signs of the two terms above.
( ) ( ) ( ) r dz r dr r dz dr r
rz rz
t t t t 2 2 + +
Louisiana Tech University
Ruston, LA 71272
Pressure Force
The only force remaining is that cause by pressure on the two
surfaces at r and r+dr.
dr
dz
This force must balance the shearing force:
( ) ( ) dz z p dr r z p dr r F + = t t 2 2
Louisiana Tech University
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Force Balance
( ) ( ) ( ) = + + r dz r dr r dz dr r
rz rz
t t t t 2 2
( ) ( ) dz z p dr r z p dr r + t t 2 2
Divide by 2t dr dz:
( ) ( ) ( )
=
+ +
dr
r r dr r dr r
rz rz
t t
( ) ( )
r p z r p z dz
dz
+
Louisiana Tech University
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Force Balance
. 0 , dz dr
Take the limit as
( ) ( ) ( )
=
+ +
dr
r r dr r dr r
rz rz
t t ( ) ( )
dz
dz z p r z p r +
( )
z
p
r
r
r
rz
c
c
=
c
c t
Now we need a model that describes the relationship
between the shear rate and the stress.
From the previous slide:
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Shear Stress Model
0 0 =
c
c
=
z
u
u
r
r
The Newtonian model relating stress and strain rate is:
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
=
r
u
z
u
z r
rz
t
Thus,
In our case,
r
u
z
rz
c
c
= t
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Differential Equation
r
u
z
rz
c
c
= t
So, with:
z
p
r
r
u
r
r
z
c
c
=
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c

The equation is:
and
( )
z
p
r
r
r
rz
c
c
=
c
c t
Louisiana Tech University
Ruston, LA 71272
Differential Equation
( )
0
0
=
c
c
= r
z
r
r u
If viscosity is constant,
z
p
r
r
u
r
r
z
c
c
=
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c

By symmetry,
Since the pressure gradient is constant (assumption 4),
we can integrate once:
1
2
2
C
z
p r
r
u
r
z
+
c
c
=
|
.
|

\
|
c
c

, so C
1
= 0.
Louisiana Tech University
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Differential Equation
( )
0
0
=
c
c
= r
z
r
r u
If viscosity is constant,
z
p
r
r
u
r
r
z
c
c
=
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c

By symmetry,
Since the pressure gradient is constant (assumption 4),
we can integrate once:
1
2
2
C
z
p r
r
u
r
z
+
c
c
=
|
.
|

\
|
c
c

, so C
1
= 0.
Louisiana Tech University
Ruston, LA 71272
Differential Equation
2
2
4
C
z
p r
u
z
+
c
c
=

z
p r
r
u
z
p r
r
u
r
z z
c
c
=
c
c

c
c
=
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
2 2
2
Integrate again.
The no-slip condition at r=R is u
z
=0, so
With
|
|
.
|

\
|

c
c
=
c
c
=
2
2 2 2
2
1
4 4 R
r
z
p R
u
z
p R
C
z

Louisiana Tech University
Ruston, LA 71272
Review, Poiseuille Flow
1. Use a shell balance to relate velocity to the
forces.
2. Use a model for stress to write it in terms of
velocity gradients.
3. Integrate
4. Use symmetry and no-slip conditions to
evaluate the constants of integration.

If you have had any course in fluid mechanics
before, you have almost certainly used this
procedure already.
Louisiana Tech University
Ruston, LA 71272
Moment of Momentum Balance
It is useful to recall the meanings of the terms.
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
} } }
+
c
c
=
m m m
S R R
dA dV
t
dV
dt
d
n v v p
v p
v p

Rate at which the


moment of momentum of
the fluid passing
through the sample
volume increases
(production of
momentum).
Rate at which
the moment of
momentum
increases inside
the sample
volume (partial
derivative)
Flux of moment
of momentum
through the
surface of the
control volume.
Louisiana Tech University
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Types of Forces
1. External Forces
(gravity, electrostatic)

2. Mutual forces (arise
from within the body)
a. Intermolecular
b. electrostatic

3. Interfacial Forces (act
on surfaces)
dV F
p
R
m
}
= f
dA F
p
S
}
= t
dV F
p
R
e
}
= f
Louisiana Tech University
Ruston, LA 71272
Types of Forces
1. Body Forces (Three Dimensional)
Gravity
Magnetism
2. Surface Forces (Two Dimensional)
a. Pressure x Area normal to a surface
b. Shear stresses x Area Tangential to the
surface
3. Interfacial Forces (One Dimensional)
e.g. surface tension x length)
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Types of Forces
4. Tension (Zero Dimensional)
The tension in a guitar string.
OK, really this is 2 dimensional, but it is
treated as zero-dimensional in the
equations for the vibrating string.
Louisiana Tech University
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The Stress Tensor
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =

33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
t t t
t t t
t t t
t
j
i j
i ij
e e
11
t
13
t
12
t
The first subscript is the face on
which the stress is imposed.
The second subscript is the direction
in which the stress is imposed.
Louisiana Tech University
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The Stress Tensor
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =

3 32 31
23 2 21
13 12 1
o t t
t o t
t t o
t
j
i j
i ij
e e
1
o
13
t
12
t
The diagonal terms (normal stresses)
are often denoted by o
i.

Louisiana Tech University
Ruston, LA 71272
Exercise
For a general case, what is the momentum balance
in the u-direction on the differential element shown
(in cylindrical coordinates)?
dr
du
dz
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Ruston, LA 71272
Look at the ur term
( ) | | ( )| |
r r
r dr r dr d dz r rd dz
u u
t u t u ( + +

Divide by dr, du, dz
( )
r
r
r
u
t c
=
c
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Contact Forces
Diagonal elements are often denoted as o
B-P
P
t(z,P)
Stress Principle:
Regardless of how we
define P, we can find
t(z,n)
n
Louisiana Tech University
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Contact Forces
Diagonal elements are often denoted as o
B-P
t(z,P)
Stress Principle:
Regardless of how we
define P, we can find
t(z,n)
n P
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Cauchys Lemma
Stress exerted by B-P on P is equal and opposite to the
force exerted by P on B-P.
BP
t(z,n)
n
P
BP
t(z, n)
P
n
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Finding t(z,n)
If we know t(z,n) for some surface normal n, how
does it change as the orientation of the surface
changes?
BP
t(z,n)
n
P
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The Tetrahedron
We can find the dependence of t on n from a
momentum balance on the tetrahedron below.
Assume that we know the surface forces on the
sides parallel to the cartesian basis vectors. We
can then solve for the stress on the fourth
surface.
A
3

A
2

A
1

n
z
1

z
3

z
2

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The Stresses on A
i

Must distinguish between the normals to the
surfaces A
i
and the directions of the stresses.
In this derivation, stresses on each surface
can point in arbitrary directions. t
i
is a vector,
not a component.
A
3

A
2

A
1

n
z
1

z
3

z
2

t
1

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Components of t
i

Recall the stress tensor:
A
3

A
2

A
1

n
z
1

z
3

z
2

t
1

|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
t t t
t t t
t t t

Surface (row)
Direction of
Force (Column)
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Total Derivative
Let t
1
, t
2
, and t
3
be the stresses on the three A
i

( ) ( ) ( )
} } }
+ =
m m m
R S R
dV dA dV
dt
d
f t v
A
3

A
2

A
1

n
z
1

z
3

z
2

( )
( )
3
hA
dt
d
dV
dt
d
m
R
m
v
v ~
}
Value is
constant if
region is small.
Volume of the
tetrahedron.
Louisiana Tech University
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Body Forces
Similarly,
( ) ( ) ( )
} } }
+ =
m m m
R S R
dV dA dV
dt
d
f t v
A
3

A
2

A
1

n
z
1

z
3

z
2

( )
3
hA
dV
dt
d
m
R
f f ~
}
Value is
constant if
region is small.
Volume of the
tetrahedron.
Louisiana Tech University
Ruston, LA 71272
Surface Forces
( ) ( ) ( )
} } }
+ =
m m m
R S R
dV dA dV
dt
d
f t v
A
3

A
2

A
1

n
z
1

z
3

z
2

( )
3 3 2 2 2 1
t t t t t A A A A dA
m
S
+ + + ~
}
Area of the
surface.
t does not vary for
differential volume.
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Find A
i

( )
3 3 2 2 1 1
3 3 2 2 2 1
t t t
t t t t
n n n t A
A A A A
+ + +
= + + +
A
3

A
2

A
1

n
z
1

z
3

z
2

Each of the A
i
is the projection of A on the coordinate
plane. Note that A projected on the z
1
z
2
plane is just
1 3
An A = e n (i.e. dot n with the coordinate).
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Infinitessimal Momentum Balance
3 3 2 2 1 1
t t t t n n n + + =
( )
( )
3 3 2 2 1 1
3
t t t t f
v
n n n A
hA
dt
d
m
+ + + =
|
|
.
|

\
|

A
3

A
2

A
1

n
z
1

z
3

z
2

Thus:
Divide by A
( )
( )
3 3 2 2 1 1
3
t t t t f
v
n n n
h
dt
d
m
+ + + =
|
|
.
|

\
|

Take the limit as the tetrahedron
becomes infinitessimally small (h 0)
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Meaning of This Relationship
3 3 2 2 1 1
t t t t n n n + + =
A
3

A
2

A
1

n
z
1

z
3

z
2

If we examine the stress at a point, and we wish to
determine how it changes with the direction of the
chosen normal vector (i.e. with the orientation of the
surface of the body), we find that:
Where
3 2 1
, , t t t and
are the stresses on the
surfaces perpendicular to
the coordinate directions.
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Mohrs Circle
Those students familiar with solid mechanics
will recall the Mohrs Circle, which is a
statement of the previous relationship for
2-dimensions in solids.
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Symmetry
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
3 32 31
23 2 21
13 12 1
o t t
t o t
t t o

1
o
13
t
12
t
The stress tensor is symmetric. I.e. t
ij=
t
ji

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Kroneker Delta
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
I
ij
o

=
=
=
j i
j i
ij
if
if
1
0
o
The Kroneker delta is defined as:
It can be thought of as a compact notation for the identity matrix:
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Permutation Tensor
1
1
132 213 321
312 231 123
= = =
+ = = =
c c c
c c c

= = =

+
=
k i k j j i
ijk
ijk
ijk
or or if
rotation negative a is if
rotation positive a is if
, , 0
1
1
c
The permutation tensor is defined as:
It is a sparse tensor, so the only components (of 27 possible)
that are not zero are:
1
2
3
1
3
2
Positive
Negative
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Permutation Tensor and Delta
233 133 232 132 231 131
223 123 222 122 221 121
213 113 212 112 211 111 2 1
c c c c c c
c c c c c c
c c c c c c c c
+ + +
+ + +
+ + =
jk jk
mn njk mjk
o c c 2 =
A well known result is:
This expression is a 2
nd
order tensor, each component of which
is the sum of 9 terms. For example, with m=1 and n=2.
(note sums over j and k)
js are the same
ks are the same
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Permutation Tensor and Delta
( )( ) ( )( ) 2 1 1 1 1
132 132 123 123 1 1
= + = + = c c c c c c
jk jk
njk mjk
c c
Consider the mn component of
If m=n=1, then there are only 2 possibilities for j and k that do
not lead to zero values of the permutation tensor. They can
be 2 and 3, for if either is 1, then the value is zero.
The same result occurs for m=n=2 and m=n=3. I.e. if m=n,
then the value us 2.
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Permutation Tensor and Delta
mn jk jk
n m
n m
o c c 2
0
2
1 1
=

=
=
=
if
if
If m=n, then the first c is nonzero only if its j and k indices are
not m. But in that case, since n must be one of these other
two values and the second c must be zero. I.e., the
expression is zero when m=n. The two results combine as
follows:
This expression is valuable because it allows us to relate
something that looks complicated in terms of something that
is more readily understandable.
Louisiana Tech University
Ruston, LA 71272
Permutation Tensor and Delta
3 312 321 , 321 312 , 321 321 , 312 312
2 231 213 , 213 231 , 213 213 , 231 231
1 123 132 , 132 123 , 132 132 , 123 123
=
=
=
i
i
i
for
for
for
mnk ijk
c c Consider another expression:
This expression is frightening because it is a 4
th
order tensor.
It has 81 components, each of which is made of 3 terms.
Yet, all terms for which i=j or m=n or will be zero. Let i=1,
then j=2, k=3 or j=3, k=2 give nonzero results. If k=3, then
there are only two nonzero values of m and n. Overall, the
important values of the subscripts are:
Gives +1
Gives 1
mnk k j i
Louisiana Tech University
Ruston, LA 71272
Permutation Tensor and Delta
3 312 321 , 321 312 , 321 321 , 312 312
2 231 213 , 213 231 , 213 213 , 231 231
1 123 132 , 132 123 , 132 132 , 123 123
=
=
=
i
i
i
for
for
for
mnk k j i
mnk ijk
c c Consider another expression:
Gives +1
Gives 1
1
1
213 123 21
123 123 12 12
= =
= =
12
c c c c
c c c c
k k
k k
Only 6 terms are non-zero (those for which i=j and
either i=m, j=n or i=n and j=m. Two of these are:
Louisiana Tech University
Ruston, LA 71272
Permutation Tensor and Delta

= = =
= = =
=
=
m j n i j i
n j m i j i
j i
mnk ijk
, , 1
, , 1
0
for
for
for
c c
Thus,
Louisiana Tech University
Ruston, LA 71272
Permutation Tensor and Delta
jn im jn im
o o o o
It can be shown, through similar enumeration, that the delta
expression:
Gives the same results and that therefore:
jn im jn im mnk ijk
o o o o c c =