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Introduction September 9, 2013 in Savannah, Georgia. B. S. N. from Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1942; and her M.P.H.

from Harvard University in Boston in 1948. From 1949 till retirement in 1978 she was an assistant professor of pediatric nursing, an associate professor of nursing, and a professor of nursing at the University of California in Los Angeles. Johnson stressed the importance of research-based knowledge about the effect of nursing care on clients.

Behavior system model Dorothy first proposed her model of nursing care in 1968 as fostering of the efficient and effective behavioral functioning in the patient to prevent illness". She also stated that nursing was concerned with man as an integrated whole and this is the specific knowledge of order we require.

In 1980 Johnson published her conceptualization of behavioral system of model for nursingwhere she explains her definitions of the behavioral system model.

Definition of nursing She defined nursing as an external regulatory force which acts to preserve the organization and integration of the patients behaviors at an optimum level under those conditions in which the behaviors constitutes a threat to the physical or social health, or in which illness is found

Four goals of nursing are to assist the patient: + Whose behavior commensurate with social demands. + Who is able to modify his behavior in ways that it supports biological imperatives + Who is able to benefit to the fullest extent during illness from the physicians knowledge and skill. + Whose behavior does not give evidence of unnecessary trauma as a consequence of illness

Assumptions There are several layers of assumptions that Johnson makes in the development of conceptualization of the behavioral system model viz. Assumptions about system Assumptions about structure Assumptions about functions

Assumptions about system There are 4 assumptions of system: First, there is organization, interaction, interdependency and integration of the parts and elements of behaviors that go to make up the system A system tends to achieve a balance among the various forces operating within and upon it', and that man strive continually to maintain a behavioral system balance and steady state by more or less automatic adjustments and adaptations to the natural forces impinging upon him.

A behavioral system, which both requires and results in some degree of regularity and constancy in behavior, is essential to man that is to say, it is functionally significant in that it serves a useful purpose, both in social life and for the individual. Last, system balance reflects adjustments and adaptations that are successful in some way and to some degree..

Assumptions about structure and function of each subsystem from the form the behavior takes and the consequences it achieves can be inferred what drive has been stimulated or what goal is being sought Each individual has a predisposition to act with reference to the goal, in certain ways rather than the other ways. This predisposition is called as set.

Each subsystem has a repertoire of choices or scope of action The fourth assumption is that it produce observable outcome that is the individuals behavior.

Each subsystem has three functional requirements


1. System must be protected" from noxious influences with which system cannot cope. 2. Each subsystem must be nurtured through the input of appropriate supplies from the environment.

3. Each subsystem must be stimulated for use to enhance growth and prevent stagnation. --These behaviors are orderly, purposeful and predictable and sufficiently stable and recurrent to be amenable to description and explanation

Johnsons Behavioral Subsystem Attachment or affiliative subsystem: social inclusion intimacy and the formation and attachment of a strong social bond.

Dependency subsystem: approval, attention or recognition and physical assistance


Ingestive subsystem: the emphasis is on the meaning and structures of the social events surrounding the occasion when the food is eaten

Eliminative subsystem: human cultures have defined different socially acceptable behaviors for excretion of waste ,but the existence of such a pattern remains different from culture to Culture. Sexual subsystem:" both biological and social factor affect the behavior in the sexual subsystem Aggressive subsystem: " it relates to the behaviors concerned with protection and self preservation Johnson views aggressive subsystem as one that generates defensive response from the individual when life or territory is being threatened

Achievement subsystem: " provokes behavior that attempt to control the environment intellectual, physical, creative, mechanical and social skills achievement are some of the areas that Johnson recognizes".

The four major concepts Human being as having two major systems, the biological system and the behavioral system. It is role of the medicine to focus on biological system where as Nursling's focus is the behavioral system.

Society relates to the environment on which the individual exists. According to Johnson an individuals behavior is influenced by the events in the environment

Nursing has a primary goal that is to foster equilibrium within the individual. Nursing is concerned with the organized and integrated whole, but that the major focus is on maintaining a balance in the Behavior system when illness occurs in an individual.

Health is a purposeful adaptive response, physically mentally, emotionally, and socially to internal and external stimuli in order to maintain stability and comfort.