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Civil Rights Movement

Dada Vsquez Mena

African American Reactions to Segregation


Important men during the Desegregation Malcolm X Martin Luther King Jr. Black Panthers

The Montgomery Bus Boycott


Four days after Brown, Bus drivers could no force colored people to yield the seats to the whites.
The Mayor refused.

On December 1, 1996, Rosa Parks, took a seat on the front part of the bus and didnt yield her seat to a white man.
She was sent to jail and news of Parks arrest spread rapidly. A bus boycott began and the NAACP chose Martin Luther King Jr. to lead the group.

Walking for Justice


On the night of December 5, 1955, Dr. King made the following statement to a crowd between 5,000 and 15,000 people.
There comes a time when people get tired of being trampled over by the iron feet of oppression. I want it to be known that were going to work with grim and blood determination to gain justice on buses in this city. And we are not wrong. If we are wrong the Supreme Court of this nation is wrong. If we are wrong God Almighty is wrong If we are wrong justice is a lie.

Walking for Justice


Kings speech brought people to their feet and filled the audience with a sense of mission. For 381 days, African-American people refused to ride the buses in Montgomery. Finally, in 1956, the Supreme Court outlawed bus segregation.

Martin Luther King and the SCLC


The bus boycott proved the world that the African-American community could unite and organize a successful protest movement.
It also proved the power of nonviolent resistance and peaceful refusal to unjust laws

King called his brand of nonviolent resistance soul force

From the Grassroots Up


After the bus boycott ended, King joined a group with ministers and civil rights leaders in 1957 to found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.
Its purpose was to carry on nonviolent crusades against the evils of second-class citizenship

SNCC
Student Nonviolent Coordinating committee The SNCC adopted Kings ideas, and found a strategy to reshape the civil rights movement. The SNCC made many sit-ins in which AfricanAmerican students went to eat at a whitesonly lunch counter. Many whites through food and drinks at them, and when reporters came to the scene, the true and ugly face of racism was exposed.

Martin Luther King Jr.


On October 14, 1964, King received the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolence He was also killed in April 4, 1968
His death followed by many riots in U.S.

Malcolm X
Born Malcolm Little Father killed by white racists. Mother had emotional collapse Under care of the state Quit school in 8th grade Criminal activity and jailed at age 20
Burglary

Malcolm X
While in prison he studied Elijah Muhammad
Nation of Islam (Black Muslims)

Changed his name to Malcolm X


Dropped the slave name

Believed that whites were the cause of black problems Believed blacks should separate from white society. Advocated armed self-defense
Frightened whites

Resented by some members of Nation of Islam because of the attention he got

Malcolm X
Split from Elijah Muhammad
Formed another Muslim organization

Went to Mecca
A tradition in the Islamic faith and an obligation in more orthodox sects

New attitude towards whites


Ballots of bullets

Shot and killed on February 21, 1965

Malcolm X
Split from Elijah Muhammad
Formed another Muslim organization

Went to Mecca
A tradition in the Islamic faith and an obligation in more orthodox sects

New attitude towards whites


Ballots of bullets

Shot and killed on February 21, 1965

The Black Panther Party

Background and Ideology


Oakland, CA Oct. 1966 Huey Newton and Bobby Seale Protection of black neighborhoods from police brutality Advocate of self sufficiency for black communities, as well as full employment and decent housing. Black militantism

Influences
Marxism
Followed a mix of marxism and black nationalism Sold copies of Mao Zedongs writings Got them in a lot of legal issues with the government

Malcolm X
They needed to become more independent from white people Become a major influence Ten Point Program

Actions
Free Breakfast for Children Program
Provided free breakfast only for black children Inspired by Mao Zedongs writings Located in the Oakland church.

Clothing Distribution Education Free medical clinics Intercommunal Youth Institute


Skill levels instead of grade levels Children were given free clothes, medical checkups, food, and education

Legal Persecution
Neighborhood Patrols
Members of the BPP took turns in order to act as local guards

Violent confrontations
Police raids Shootouts Internal conflicts Huey Netwons incarceration death of Officer John Frey during a traffic stop Free Huey FBI investigations of group members involving the use of illegal tactics.

Support in the ghettos does not end.

Quiz
1. What did the Montgomery bus boycott with Martin Luther King Jr. prove to the world?
a) That the African-American community could walk on the streets with no problem b) That the African-American community could unite and organize a successful protest movement c) That Martin Luther King Jr. one handedly stopped segregation d) That Martin Luther King Jr. inspired Gandhi to do the same in India

Quiz
2. What was the organization Malcolm X joined while in prison? a) Nation of Christianity b) Nation of Islam c) National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) d) CCCP 3. What did Malcolm X believe should the blacks do? a) Separate from white society and form a black society. b) Hang all the whites c) Move out of the United States d) Help the Soviet Union

Quiz
4. What were two major entities that influenced the Black Panthers in their ideologies? a) Mao Zedong and Malcolm X b) Marx and Obama c) Ernest Withers and Kennedy d) Martin Luther King Jr. and Stokely Carmichael

5. Name two ways in which the Black Panthers helped their black community: