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Ten Key Factors that Influence Successful Bilingualism and Multilingualism

Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa, Ph.D. Know-It-All Switzerland September 2013

1. Benefits of bilingualism and multilingualism


2. Game: Myths of Multilingualism 3. State of the research 4. Questions and general discussion.

Background
BA and BS from Boston University in International Relations and Mass Communication (magna cum laude). Masters from Harvard University in International Education and Development and doctorate (Ph.D.) from Capella University (crossdisciplinary approach comparing findings in neuroscience, psychology, pedagogy, cultural anthropology and linguistics). Director of the Institute for Research and Educational Development, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador. Author of Raising Multilingual Children (2001), The Multilingual Mind (2003), and Living Languages (2008). New book on neuroscience and language 2014. Teacher (pre-kindergarten through university) with 24 years of comparative research based on family case studies (Japan, Ecuador, USA, Canada, France, Switzerland, Germany) and work in 24 different countries. Three children (raised in English, Spanish, German and French).

Three children (raised in English, Spanish, German and French)

Cognitive benefits: Social benefits: Economic benefits: Personal benefits: Communication benefits: Cultural benefits: Academic benefits:

Enhanced higher thinking skills (metalinguistic awareness, creativity, sensitivity to communication, inhibitory control, flexible thinking). Integration, appreciation of other cultures Marketability of bilingual skills, government- and business- recognized need. Psychological well-being, self confidence, sense of belonging, enhanced identity with roots. Literacy in three languages enables access to wider literature and a wider communication network of family, international links. Greater tolerance, less racism, bigger intercultural sense. Easier to learn the third language, increased curriculum achievement--impact on other subjects.

Linguist John Maher, of International Christian University in Tokyo (2002). The Practical Linguist: Make the most of the bilingual advantage. The Daily Yomiuri. Japan. Reformatted by Tokuhama-Espinosa 2005.

(Neuro)linguistics: Benefits of bilingualism


Bilingual children learn have higher levels of abstraction at earlier ages than monolinguals. (1) Bilinguals learn to manage language rules at an earlier age than monolinguals. (2) Bilinguals learn to inhibit (ignore information calling for attention) earlier and with faster speed that monolinguals, which directly relates to executive functions (3). Bilinguals use more of their brains than monolinguals. (3).
1. Suzanne Flynn professor of linguistics and second-language acquisition at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Ellen Bialystok, professor of psychology at York University in Toronto. 2. Adele Diamond, director of the Center for Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience at the University of Massachusetts Medical School in Waltham. 3. Patricia Kuhl of the University of Washington .

No disadvantages
Our findings suggest that early bilingualism offers no disadvantages; on the contrary, young bilinguals may be afforded a linguistic and a cognitive advantage.
Early dual language exposure is also key to skilled reading acquisition. Moreover, learning to read in two languages may afford an advantage to children from monolingual homes in key phoneme awareness skills vital to reading success.
Petitto & Dunbar, MBE/Harvard, October 6-8, 2004; Page 7 of 20 *VIDEO 2: Does learning language make kids smarter? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UfNXtUFUbxE (1:38 mins)

Children who experience early, extensive, and systematic exposure to both of their languages quickly grasp the fundamentals of both of their languages and in a manner virtually identical to that of monolingual language learners.
Petitto & Dunbar, MBE/Harvard, October 6-8, 2004; Page 7 of 20 *VIDEO 3: More Evidence Bilingualism Aids Thinking Skills http://www.everydayhealth.com/healthy-living/0501/more-evidence-bilingualism-aidsthinking-skills.aspx (4:03 mins)

One minute paper on -Languages -Bilingual Education The Multilingual Brain (or any related title)

Have a look at the papers on your seats. Which are myths of multilingualism and which are true statements?

*Also see: Harvard lecture on Bilingualism and Multilingualism, Jan 2013 (Tokuhama-Espinosa) : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=420EHD4TfOU

The Ten Key Factors


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Timing (Windows of Opportunity) Aptitude Motivation Strategy Consistency Opportunity and support (home, school, community) Linguistic and historic relationship between languages 8. Siblings 9. Gender 10. Hand-use as a reflection of cerebral dominance for languages 11. . and?

True and False Quiz


Do you believe the statement is true or false? Why? (Origins: These are statements made by teachers, doctors and parents I met while doing my research.)

True or False?
1. By learning more than one language a child can suffer brain overload.

Nitsch, C., Franceschini, R., Ldi, G., Rad, E.-W., 2006; Hirsch, 1997.

True or False?
2. Some languages are easier to learn than others.

Baker, 2004; Pinker, 2000.

True or False?
3. Bilinguals are more creative than monolinguals.

Kharkhurin, A.V. (2012); Ricardelli, 1992

True or False?
4. Bilingualism can cause problems such as stuttering and dyslexia.

Harley 1989; McLaughlin 1992.

True or False?
5. It is impossible for an adult to learn a new language as fast as a child.

Harley 1989; McLaughlin 1992.

True or False?
6. It is impossible for an adult to learn a new language without an accent.

Harley 1989; McLaughlin 1992.

True or False?
7. When a child learns his languages from birth he is effectively learning them as two first languages.

L1 L2

1. 2.

3.

Languages are separate and dont overlap (firewall model). The second language is learned on top of the first. The two languages are separate but overlap in some areas (overlap hypothesis).

Two languages in one brain:


Brain scans show that people brought up bilingual from birth have languages in the same area of the brain as monolinguals. People who learn languages after the first seven months or so actually use different areas for processing sounds, or simply do not perceive sounds, which are not representative in their native language at all.

Kovelman, Baker, and Petitto, 2008; Fennell, Byers-Heinlein & Werker , 2006.

Antonio Rodriguez-Fornells, Michael Rotte, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Tmme Nsselt and Thomas F. Mnte (28 February 2002). Brain potential and functional MRI evidence for how to handle two languages with one brain. Nature 415, 10261029doi:10.1038/4 151026a

Humans have a unique ability to learn more than one language-a skill that is thought to be mediated by functional (rather than structural) plastic changes in the brain.
Mechelli, A. and J. T. Crinion and U. Noppeney and J. Ashburner and R. S. Frackowiak and C. J. Price (2004).

True or False?
8. All people have the same area of their brain to speak different languages.

True or False?
9. It is not recommended that children learn literacy skills in two languages simultaneously (children should not learn to read in two different languages at once).

Steps Towards Multiliteracy Skills:


1. Understand the use of the written word
2. Learn the phonemic alphabet 3. Acknowledge exceptions in sound to letter relation 4. Acknowledge exceptions between languages 5. Practice: Familiarity, Repetition and Frequency

Oral Skills (Basic Communication)


Time 1

Literacy Skills (Academic)

Average 2 years to reach Average 5-7 years to native language reach native equivalent (however, this language equivalent is highly influenced by the age and motivation of the learner) Playground language Supported by interpersonal cues such as gestures, facial expressions and intonation. Anglo-Saxon
1. Cummins (1981); 2. Gibbins (1999); 3. Corson (1993, 1995)

Definition 2

Classroom language De-contextualized language

Characteristics 3

Graeco-Latin

Origins

True or False?
10. The general research findings examining trilinguals brains to date point to no pattern for multilingualism.
Nitsch, Franceschini, Ldi, Rad, n/d

True or False?
11. Multilinguals are shown to be faster at working memory tasks than monolinguals.
Baddeley, 2001

True or False?
12. Bilingual students achieve higher results on English-language proficiency tests than their Anglophone, monolingual peers.
Cenoz & Lindsay, 1994

The Facts and StudiesThe Benefits of Multilingualism


Bilingual students achieve higher results on English-language proficiency tests than their Anglophone, monolingual peers_: Significant effects of bilingualism were found on four of five measures, i.e., listening, speaking, writing, & vocabulary/grammar. No significant effect on reading ability was observed.

True or False?
13. A nine-year-old has the same size brain as an adult; therefore they learn foreign languages in the same way.

Suddath, Christison, Torrey, Casanova & Weinberger, 1990.

True or False?
14. The more languages you know, the easier it gets to learn an additional one.
Government of Canada, 2003; University of Oxford, 2003

True and False?


15. The quality of the first language impacts the quality of the second language, and the quality of the third language depends on the quality of the second language.

Cenoz & Lindsay, 1994

True or False?

16. Most of the world is monolingual.

Nitsch, 2004

Native languages speakers


There are roughly

2,500-6,000 lanagues in the world.

The most widely spoken

languages with approximate number of native speakers are the following, totaling a little more than half of the worlds population:

Myths
A child should first study his native language, then after he has mastered this, then learn a new one. A child who learns two languages simultaneously will be confused and have lower intelligence. A child with two languages will never feel completely secure in either. A bilingual child will always have identity problems and feel a lack of belonging to his cultures because he will never fully be a part of either. Bilinguals tend to translate from the weaker language to the stronger. True bilinguals never mix their languages.
Gutierrez, s.f.; Kandolf, 1998; Narvez, 2009

Myths.
All people who are bilingual from birth make excellent translators. True bilinguals never confuse their languages; if they do, they are actually semi-linguals. There are some language programs which can actually teach foreign languages in a matter of weeks or even days, which means there is no reason (except for lack of motivation), that many people take years to learn another language. The ability to learn a foreign language is directly related to the level of intelligence of an individual. Bilinguals have split personalities. Older people can never become fully bilingual.
Gutierrez, s.f.; Kandolf, 1998; Narvez, 2009

Benefits of bilingualism Myths of multilingualism


Video: Bilingualism (Benefits and Myths) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4vSysdTOyk8 (3:18 mins)

Should an Autistic child be bilingual? Autistic Children Benefit When Allowed to Remain Bilingual http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=96Rga_OkC5Y (3:14mins)

The Ten Key Factors that influence successful bilingualism and multilingualism

The Ten Key Factors


1. Timing (Windows of Opportunity) 2. Aptitude 3. Motivation 4. Strategy 5. Consistency 6. Opportunity and support (home, school, community) 7. Linguistic and historic relationship between languages 8. Sibllings 9. Gender 10. Hand-use as a reflection of cerebral dominance for languages 11. and?

1. The Windows of Opportunity

1. First: 0 a 9 months (A window-and-a-half: 9 a 24-30 months)

Language Milestones* 2-3 Normal Mixing Stage 3-4 Labeling of Languages 5+ Cognizant of translation concept 4-10 syntactic conservationism
*Remember that children can vary by as much as a year in either direction related to language development!

2. Second : 4 a 8 years
3. Third: 8 years + (from old-age and back)

2. Aptitude
Something one is born with Approximately 10% of the population

Measuring
MFLAT Gardners definition of Intelligence Levines neurodevelopmental constructs

3. Motivation
Positive (+) Negative (-)

Internal vs. External Positive vs. Negative

Intrinsic

Extrinsic

4. Strategy 5. Consistency
Seven most practiced strategies
Do not have to be simple They should be consistent (especially for younger children).

Sample Strategies

6. Opportunity and Support


How many times a day does the child have the chance to use the target language(s) in a given day?
At Home In School Within the Community

Who takes responsibility for language learning? (The Child himself? The School? The Community? The Family?)

7. Linguistic and historic relationship between languages


Historical vs. Linguistic relationships and languages Language SubFamilies Families Related languages are easier to learn.

Sample language families (Europe)


Proto-Indo-European Languages Indo-Iranian Iran (Persian, Kurd) Indo-Aryan (Hindu, Urdu, Bengali, Nepalese) Indo-European Latin (French, Spanish Portuguese, Italian, Rumanian) Dutch (German, English, Dutch, Danish, Swedish) Czech-Slovak (Czech, Slovak, Polish, Serbian-Croatian, Ukrainian, Russian) Celtic (Gaelic, Gales) Baltic (Lithuanian, Letn) Greek Albanian Armenian Other European languages Ugrians (Finnish, Hungarian, Estonian) Basque Caucasus (Georgian, Chechen)

Koryakov Y.B. Atlas of Romance languages. Moscow, 2001

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romance_languages

Sample language families


(Africa)
African languages Afro-Asian
Semite (Arabic, Hebrew) Chadic Bereber Cushitic Egyptian

Nilo-Saharan (Masai) Niger-Congo Hoisin (Nama)


Yoruba Bantu (Swahili, Bantu)

Sample language families


(Asia)
Asian Pacific languages Dravidic (Tamil) Munda (Khmer, Vietnamese) Burushaski Altaic (Mongol, Turkish, Tungus) Japanese Korean Sino-Tibetan (Chinese, Tibetan,
Burmese) Thai (Thai)

Austroasian (Malay, Bahasa, Papua Aborigine Australian


Hawaiian, Tagalog)

Sample language families


(America)

American languages
Esquimalt - Aleut (Inuit, Greenlandic) Na-Deme Athabasca (Navajo) Algonquin (Other native languages) Iroquoian Siouan Ute-Azteca (Nahuatl , Quechua ) Quechua Tup-Guaran Jvaro Ticuna

Linguistic typologies

Based on Greenberg, 1966, Typological Ensembles

First and second languages influences on the acquisition of a third language


Typology (similarity between languages) Speakers level of proficiency Linguistic awareness Time spent on language Education level of the student Age when language is learned Parent involvement Teacher qualifications

Typology
This appears to be the most important variable in determining the likelihood of language transfer_

Similarity between languages Languages that share grammar (as with Latin roots), vocabulary, or have a similar phoneme base are easier to learn.

8. Siblings
Positive influences Negative influences

9. Gender
Are there differences between boys and girls (men and women) related to language? How are these measured? What does this imply in terms of children learning foreign languages?

10. Hemispheric dominance for languages

Reflection of cerebral dominance 95% of right-handed people and 70% of left-handed people have Broca and Wernickes Area in the left hemisphere. What does this mean for teaching materials that are developed for the majority?

11. What other factor is missing?

The Ten Key Factors in Raising Multilingual Children


1. Timing and The Windows of Opportunity 2. Aptitude for Foreign Languages 3. Motivation 4. Strategy 5. Consistency 6. Opportunity and Support (Home, School and Community) 7. Language Typology and Similarities 8. Siblings 9. Gender 10. Hand Use 11. ????
Tokuhama-Espinosa, 2000

Individual influences

Time spent on language


The more language is practiced, the more proficient one becomes. Amount of exposure has a strong effect on the likelihood of both positive and negative language transfer_ The role of linguistic exposure functions similarly in L2 and L3 acquisition.

Education level of the student


[Language] learners who have highly developed language skills (such as reading, writing and richness of vocabulary) in their native language will most likely find that these skills facilitate second language acquisition, though this has been less explored in L3 learners.

Age when language is learned


Human beings can and do learn foreign languages throughout the lifespan.

Some considerations:
In a comparison of children in grades 2, 6 and 9, it was found that the older children used more language transfer (displaying greater metalinguistic awareness)_. The younger the children; the general guideline is that child learners are less likely to draw on the L1

the ages 4-10 are marked by syntactic conservationism during which children tend to stick to one syntactic pattern, whereas adults are more flexible.

Speakers level of proficiency


There is a general consensus among researchers that language transfer is more likely to occur at lower levels of proficiency when they use L1 or L2 to fill in language gaps in L3.

Linguistic awareness
characterized by increased meta-linguistic awareness, greater creativity and cognitive flexibility, and more diversified mental abilities._

Awareness is not limited to linguistic structure and semantics but also affects phonological, pragmatic, and sociolinguistic knowledge_

Individual learning strategies


The degree of proficiency, time and order of foreign language learning are less important than motivation and interaction with the target language. Furthermore, proficiency and degree of activation are more important than typological similarity with target language.

Individual learning strategies


Metacognition Role of First, Second Languages in Third Language Acquisition

Use of inference
Vocabulary acquisition Motivation and frequent use

Metacognition: The Multilingual Mind


The manner in which word forms are connected to the other words in the multilingual minds: is this connection is mediated by the first language or not. It has been found that first languages do not necessarily play a privileged role in the acquisition of subsequent languages. The reaction times measured showed that despite the claims in the literature, first language does not seem to have a determining role in the development of a third language.
Findings suggest that both L1 and L2 have a role: L1 is the default supplier during transfer lapses and L2 during interactional strategies.

Metacognition: The Multilingual Mind


Parasitism as a default mechanism in L3 vocabulary acquisition (Christopher J. Hall and Peter Ecke) presupposes that new words are integrated into existing lexical network with least possible redundancy and as rapidly as possible in order to become accessible for communication. The authors propose that the multilingual lexicon admits cross-linguistic transfer (CLI) from all possible source languages and at all representational levels.

The Mother Tongue Dilemma


The questions: Can a child develop strong second language skills if they have a weak mother tongue (as in when they come from poorer backgrounds and have not been properly schooled in the home language)? Amount of exposure has a strong effect on the likelihood of both positive and negative language transfer1 Part of the answer:
[Language] learners who have highly developed language skills (such as reading, writing and richness of vocabulary) in their native language will most likely find that these skills facilitate second language acquisition2

1. Dewaele, J. (2001). Activation or inhibition? The interaction of L1, L2 and L3 on the language mode continuum; 2. Odlin, T. (1989). Language transfer. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. .

The Facts and Studies-The Mother Tongue Dilemma


1. There is a direct link between academic results and the time spent learning in the mother tongue_. 2. A childs proficiency level in the native language relates to the speed and extent to which the second language develops_.

The Facts and Studies


4. The more languages you know, the easier it gets to learn an additional one_. 5. Third-language learners are highly successful; they learn more language faster than second language learners of the same target language; and (2) their behaviours are those of the self-directed learner_. 6. Semilingualism is a relatively rare phenomenon and is defined by a lack of dominance in any of the languages one is acquainted with_.

The Facts and Studies


7. In 2000, more than a third of the population of Western Europe under 35 was of immigrant origin, according to a recent UNESCO report on linguistic diversity in Europe.

8. A study done in The Hague in 1999 showed that in a sample of 41,600 children aged between 4 and 17, about 49% of primary and 42% of secondary school pupils use a language other than Dutch at home, such as Turkish, Hindi, Berber or Arabic.

One-half to two-thirds of the world is bilingual or multilingual.

School influences.

Aspects of a good teacher training program:


Train teachers in English language instruction; Have regular meetings for discussing instructional issues and exchanging ideas; Develop an activity-based and thematic syllabus; Program co-ordinators observe classrooms several times a year; Apply a formative evaluation using
Portfolios Observation An attitude survey of teachers, parents, and administrators A teacher survey, and English language testing.

What does a good multilingual school look like?

What is good for the goose is good for the gander


Good teaching practices in monolingual schools are good practices in multilingual schools.

Program design should include:


Ongoing assessment using multiple measure. Integrated schooling (all language learners together) High expectations by teachers Equal status of languages Healthy parent involvement Continuous staff development second language taught through academic content Critical thinking across language program Activation of students' prior knowledge Respect for students' home language and culture Cooperative learning Interactive and discovery learning Intense and meaningful cognitive/academic development

Guidelines for Assessing Bilingual and Trilingual Children


Assessment must be developmentally and culturally appropriate. The child's bilingual linguistic background must be taken into consideration in any authentic assessment of oral language proficiency. Bilingualism is a complex concept and includes individuals with a broad range of speaking, reading, writing, and comprehending abilities in each language. Furthermore, these abilities are constantly in flux.

Guidelines for Assessing Bilingual and Trilingual Children


The goal must be to assess the child's language or languages without standardizing performance, allowing children to demonstrate what they can do in their own unique ways. Assessment must be accompanied by a strong professional development component that focuses on the use of narrative reporting, observations of language development, and sampling the child's language abilities.

Guidelines for Assessing Bilingual and Trilingual Children


A fully contextual account of the child's language skills requires the involvement of parents and family members, the students themselves, teachers, and staff in providing a detailed picture of the context of language learning and the resources that are available to the child (Nissani, 1990). What is called for is a description of the child's language environment, of the extent to which significant others-adults or children-provide language assistance by modeling, expanding, restating, repeating, questioning, prompting, negotiating meaning, cueing, pausing, praising, and providing visual and other supports.
Assessment of the child needs to take into account the entire context in which the child is learning and developing.

Implications
The Individual and his Family (Strategies and Attitudes) Frequency: Opportunities to use English Interest and Motivation Parental encouragement Pride in home language Use of home language Teaching of home language The Institution (curriculum structure and teacher training) School structure Teacher preparedness Knowledge of students home languages Student-Centered Learning

Seven observations of good multilingual programs*


1. First, successful multilingual programs start foreign language instruction early, normally in elementary school.

2.

Second, successful multilingual programs teach through coherent, well-articulated frameworks, which are careful to scaffold their learning in a developmental style.

*Elizabeth Clayton, Center for Applied Linguistics

3.

Third, the successful multilingual schools typically enjoy strong leadership, and have enthusiastic backing from key stakeholders. Fourth, successful multilingual programs teach languages as core subjects, (unlike the American tendency to make foreign languages electives). Fifth, successful multilingual school teachers receive rigorous preparation and are trained how to manage students from different language backgrounds. They also make language a priority, giving it equal status with prestigious courses like Math, Physics and Core Language.

4.

5.

6. Sixth, good multilingual programs creatively use technology in the classroom to increase interaction with native language speakers. 7. Seventh, successful multilingual schools offered support for heritage language, or the childs mother tongue

Ten additional characteristics of successful multilingual schools*


1. Successful multilingual schools ensure that language basics, including phonemic awareness, phonic fluency, age appropriate vocabulary, text comprehension and grammar are taught explicitly. 2. They emphasize good oral skills and encourage active, authentic language use by students. 3. Successful multilingual schools integrate the students family in a positive way.
Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa, 2007

4. They use a variety of assessment tools and consider the product, the process and the progress of the student. 5. Some of the most successful schools use thematic syllabi and work within dual-immersion structures in which all students take pride in their home language while learning a second or third.
6. The most successful schools conduct linguistic and ethnic audits and know their clients (students) well. When possible, they hire staff that speak the home languages of the families they serve and make every effort to keep clear channels of communication.

7. Successful schools conduct regular teacher training to ensure that teachers keep an up to date toolbox of activities handy.

8. They also have high expectations of their students.


9. The best multilingual schools allow a portion of their budget to be invested in multilingual materials and media. 10. Successful multilingual schools do their best to create a significant learning experiences, which relate new information to prior knowledge, and give students a certain level of autonomy (control and choice).

An overview of the most effective language programs in multilingual schools

Full Immersion
Characteristics:
All instruction is in target second language.

Target language is taught through the content areas (as well as a separate subject). High level of peer teaching.

Partial immersion
Characteristics:
There is some initial instruction in the childs primary language, thirty to sixty minutes a day, This is usually limited to the introduction of initial reading skills. All other instruction is in the second language.

Dual immersion
Characteristics:
Two languages are taught to the same group, normally divided by native vs. non-native speakers.

Normally taught by two different team teachers.


Can be conducted from 30-70 to 50-50 model (time in designated languages).

Need for qualified teachers.


High level of peer teaching.

(E)SL Pullout
Characteristic: Students are taken out of regular class time for support in the second language.

(E)SL Sheltered
Characteristic: Students remain in class with the other students, but are given a tutor in the class.

Early English Immersion


All instruction is in English English is taught through the content areas (as well as a separate subject)

Early Exit Programs


There is some initial instruction in the childs primary language, thirty to sixty minutes a day,

This is usually limited to the introduction of initial reading skills. All other instruction is in English.

Late exist programs


Receive a minimum of forty-percent of their total instructional time in Dutch. Students remain in this program through sixth grade, regardless of when they are reclassified as fluent-English proficient.

Results: Comparing programs


Children in immersion programs had comparable test scores regardless of the school they amended; the same was true for students in the early-exit programs (Ramirez et al., 1991, Vol. II, p. 96). In sum, after four years [K-3] in their respective programs, limited-English proficient students in immersion strategy and early-exit programs (as defined in this study) demonstrate comparable skills in mathematics, language, and reading when tested in English. (ES, p. 20)

Different growth curves between immersion strategy, early-exit, and late-exit students

While the growth curves for immersion strategy and early-exit students show growth for first to third grade in mathematics, English language, and reading skills, they also show a sawing down in the rate of growth in each of these content areas as grade level increases. This deceleration in growth is similar to that observed for students in the general population.

Different growth curves between immersion strategy, early-exit, and late-exit students
In contrast, the growth curves for students in the late-exit program from first grade to third grade and from third grade to sixth grade suggest not only continued growth in these areas, but continued acceleration in the rate of growth, which is as fast or faster than the norming population. That is, late-exit students appear to be gaining on students in the general population.

Virginia Colliers Model


When first language instructional support cannot be provided, the following program characteristics can make a significant difference in academic achievement: Second language taught through academic content Conscious focus on teaching learning strategies needed to develop thinking skills and problem-solving abilities Continuous support for staff development emphasizing activation of students' prior knowledge, respect for students' home language and culture, cooperative learning, interactive and discovery learning, intense and meaningful cognitive/academic development, and ongoing assessment using multiple measures.

Teachers role

Think of your favorite teacher

Characteristics of a good teacher


In groups: Put the characteristic in order of importance:
Caring Knowledgeable Experienced Intelligent Planner Good values Creative Professional Concerned Reflective Organized Just Happy Dedicated Balanced Respectful Active Sure Didactic Dynamic

The Facts about Teacher Importance


The quality of the teacher is the single most important factor influencing student success.

In research on Third Language Acquisition, Cenoz and Lindsay (1994) highlight the vital role of the teacher.

Cenoz & Lindsay, 1994; Aarts & Verrhoeven, 1999; Marzano and pickering, 1998.

The Facts and Studies


Cenoz and Lindsay (1994) in their study, "Teaching English in Primary School: A Project To Introduce a Third Language to Eight Year Olds highlight the important role of the teacher.

1. UNESCO. (July-Sept. 2003). The mother-tongue dilemma. Education Today Newsletter 2. Aarts and Verrhoeven (1999). "Literacy Attained in a Second Language Submersion Context." Applied Psycholinguistics 20(3): 377-394.). 3. Cenoz, J. and D. Lindsay (1994). "Teaching English in Primary School: A Project To Introduce a Third Language to Eight Year Olds." Language and Education 8(4): 201-210.

Quality of the Teacher


Being versed in appropriate teaching methods and student-centered learning activities Understanding of students native language structure Understanding of learning styles Owning a good toolbox of motivational skills-Use of student Appropriate use of evaluation and feedback mechanisms Respect for other cultures
Ramirez et al. (1991)

What motivates students?


According to Sass (1989), the eight most influential factors that motivate students and that are controlled by the teacher are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Teacher enthusiasm Relevance of the subject Organization of course Appropriate difficulty level Active participation by student Variety of activities and methodology Personal link between teacher and student Use of appropriate, concrete and clear examples.

Sass, E. J. "Motivation in the College Classroom: What Students Tell Us." Teaching of Psychology, 1989, 16(2), 86-88.

Teacher qualifications
Typically, teachers who have more graduate education and more specialized training for working with language minority children are more successful._

Teachers with greater knowledge of the home language(s) of their students are more successful.
Knowledge of evaluation methods that ensure instructually embedded assessment._

http://www.edrev.info/reviews/rev540-fig1.gif

Teacher Preparedness
Knowledge of students home languages Student-Centered Learning

Question: Proficiency level of teachers


Does the proficiency of the careers/teachers in English make a significant difference? Is it acceptable if teachers make fossilized errors/are fairly weak in their use of English or do you think those teachers would be better advised to make more use of Dutch?

Would they be better off not teaching English at all if they feel ill-equipped to do so?

Question: Teacher translation


Regarding translations, we do not have any specific guidelines about what to do. We encourage teachers to use English for classroom management and to translate utterances in Dutch into English and recast it. We always give the advice that a child needs to be understood first and foremost.

Quality of the Teacher


High EFL (EAL) teacher qualifications means:
Being versed in appropriate teaching methods Understanding of students native language structure (or being able to speak it) Understanding of learning styles Owning a good toolbox of motivational skills Appropriate use of evaluation and feedback mechanisms Respect for other cultures

Teaching practices-What not to do


Do most of the talking in classrooms (poor language teachers make about twice as many utterances as do students). Students produce language only when they are working directly with a teacher, and then only in response to teacher initiations.

Ramirez, Yuen, & Ramey, 1991, Executive Summary

Teaching practices-What not to do


Provide only simple information recall statements. Rather than being provided with the opportunity to generate original statements, students are asked to provide simple discrete close-ended or patterned (i.e., expected) responses.
Ramirez, Yuen, & Ramey, 1991, Executive Summary

Teaching practices-What to do
Teacher should make classes student-centered and try NOT speak most of the time, nor initiate the majority of the exchanges by asking display questions, but rather seek out student-initiated requests.

Musumeci, D. (1996). "Teacher-Learner Negotiation in Content-Based Instruction: Communication at CrossPurposes." Applied Linguistics 17(3): 286-324.

Teaching practices-What to do
As students prefer to verbally request help only in small group or one-toone interactions with the teacher, teachers should call on students individually and approach them personally to offer support.

Musumeci, D. (1996). "Teacher-Learner Negotiation in Content-Based Instruction: Communication at CrossPurposes." Applied Linguistics 17(3): 286-324.

Teaching practices-What to do
Teachers should not only modify their own speech in response to students' requests (verbal or non-verbal), they should also request modifications of the students' speech.

Musumeci, D. (1996). "Teacher-Learner Negotiation in Content-Based Instruction: Communication at CrossPurposes." Applied Linguistics 17(3): 286-324.

Teaching practices-What to do
Sustained negotiation - in which teachers and students verbally resolve incomplete or inaccurate messages should occur frequently.

Musumeci, D. (1996). "Teacher-Learner Negotiation in Content-Based Instruction: Communication at CrossPurposes." Applied Linguistics 17(3): 286-324.

Activities and methodologies

The person who does the work is the person who learns.

A paradigm shift:
The teacher does not have to answer all the questions: The art of answering a question with a question. The science of getting students to answer each other.

Student-Centered Learning
Before: Teachercentered From the sage on stage to the guide on the side Now: Student-centered (Subject-centered) The students are the protagonists, and the teachers work is primarily in the planning, not the execution, of class activities.

Classroom strategies: Methods for better language learning


1. 2. Cooperative learning and other grouping strategies (allow for native language use) Task-based or experiential learning

3.
4.

Inter-disciplinary activities (authentic learning)


Push for vocabulary development (grammar follows natural samples)

5.

Use of graphic organizers/portfolios to track development.

Institutional Strategies for third language learning


Curriculum structure English immersion Early exit programs Late exist programs Teacher preparedness Knowledge of students home languages Student-Centered Learning

Steven Zemelman, Harvey Daniels, y Arthur Hyde (2002): Best practices


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Student-centered Experiential Holistic Authentic Expressive Reflective Social Collaborative Democratic Cognitive Developmental Constructivist Challenging (fun)

Emotional aspects of learning

When a concept fights with an emotion, the emotion almost always wins.
Sousa, D. (2002). Cmo aprende el cerebro, p.53.

Finks Four Teaching Components

L. Dee Fink (2003) Creating Significant Learning Experiences, p.22

Classroom strategies: Methods for better third language learning


Cooperative learning and other grouping strategies (allow for native language use) Task-based or experiential learning Whole language strategies Push for vocabulary development (grammar follows natural samples)

Use of graphic organizers/portfolios to track development.

DAILY PRACTICE

L. Dee Fink (2003) Creating Significant Learning Experiences, p.22

Socratic Method
Never tell what you can ask.

Characteristics of a person who thinks critically


Intellectual curiosity Intellectual courage Intellectual humility Intellectual empathy Intellectual integrity Intellectual perseverance (intellectual generosity) Faith in reason Act justly: Have the disposition and be conscience of the necessity to consider improbable outcomes.

Paul (1992) cited in Muoz & Beltrn 2001, tranalated by the author

Examples of activities that stimulate critical thinking


1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Debate
Problem-based learning Case studies Stories, fables Dramatization Role play Crossword puzzels Questioning
The Art of Questioning Essential Questions

The 5 Es

5 Es: Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, Evaluate


Links: Constructivism and the 5 Es from the Miami Museum of Science http://www.miamisci.org/ph/lpintro5e.html The 5 Es from the Afterschool Training Toolkit, Southwestern Educational Development Laboratory http://www.sedl.org/afterschool/toolkits/science/tk_5Es.htmlOnline Cursos para profesores: La evolucin de la enseanza excelentes ejemplos de la utilizacin de las cinco Es en una unidad de PBS Online http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/educators/course/

E1: Engage
Each class should begin with an event that captivates the attention of the students. This awakens the natural curiosity that they might have about the topic and helps them make links with past knowledge.

E2: Explore
Students then do an activity that allows them to explore a new concept or skills. Students looks for solutions to problems or to explain a phenomena in their own words. This stage permits students to gather a group of shared experiences and work together to find a solution.

E3: Explain
Only after the students have explored the concept on their own should the teacher then explain using the correct terminology. Remember: Explanations after the experience!

E4: Elaborate
In this stage give the students to deepen their understanding and to apply what they have learned to new situations. Here, be sure to allow students to discuss their ideas.

E5: Evaluate
The final unit of the class has two objectives: First that students develop a clear understanding. Second, to evaluate what they think they can now do.

At this point it is logical to evaluate key concepts and skills.

Evaluation and Assessment

Guidelines for Assessing Bilingual and Trilingual Children


Assessment must be developmentally and culturally appropriate. The child's bilingual linguistic background must be taken into consideration in any authentic assessment of oral language proficiency. Bilingualism is a complex concept and includes individuals with a broad range of speaking, reading, writing, and comprehending abilities in each language. Furthermore, these abilities are constantly in flux.

Guidelines for Assessing Bilingual and Trilingual Children


The goal must be to assess the child's language or languages without standardizing performance, allowing children to demonstrate what they can do in their own unique ways. Assessment must be accompanied by a strong professional development component that focuses on the use of narrative reporting, observations of language development, and sampling the child's language abilities.

Guidelines for Assessment


A fully contextual account of the child's language skills requires the involvement of parents and family members, the students themselves, teachers, and staff in providing a detailed picture of the context of language learning and the resources that are available to the child (Nissani, 1990). What is called for is a description of the child's language environment, of the extent to which significant others-adults or children-provide language assistance by modeling, expanding, restating, repeating, questioning, prompting, negotiating meaning, cueing, pausing, praising, and providing visual and other supports. Assessment of the child needs to take into account the entire context in which the child is learning and developing.

Guidelines for Assessing Bilingual and Trilingual Children


PRODUCT
PRODUCT

PROCESS
PROGRESS Assessment must be developmentally and culturally appropriate.
EVALUATION

PROGRESS

PROCESS

McLauahglin, B., Blanchard, A.G., & Osani, Y. (1995). Assessing Language Development in Bilingual Prechool Children. NCB Program Information Guide Series, Number 22, Summer 1995.

Backward Design
Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe (1998/2005). Understanding by design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Three steps to ensuring understanding (backward design)

Adopted from Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe (1998), Understanding by Design.

Step 1. Identify desired results


Start with the end in mind.
Think of competencies (knowledge, skills and attitudes): What should students know, understand and be able to do? Determine important knowledge (facts, concepts, principles, dates, formulas). Determine important skills (processes, strategies and methods).

Determine important attitudes (e.g., empathy, intellectual honesty, perseverance)


Adopted from Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe (1998), Understanding by Design.

Step 1. Identify desired results


Determine what content area will be the focus of evaluation. Why it is important to do so?

What is the enduring understanding that is the object of the teaching?

Adopted from Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe (1998), Understanding by Design.

Knowledge

Global

formulas, datess, facts, names, etc.

Objetives
Specific
Competencies

Skills

able to do"

Attitudes

values, perspectives

Step 2. Determine Acceptable Evidence (Evaluation activities)


Backward designs focus forces us to think about each unit of the class in terms of assessment evidence to document and validate desired learning objectives. How do we know if the students are achieving the results we desire and the standards we need? What will we accept as evidence of learning (the achievement of the competencies)?
Adopted from Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe (1998), Understanding by Design.

Philosophy of evaluation
1. What is the purpose of evaluation? 2. What is the difference between evaluation and feedback? 3. Should we evaluate students based on standards, or on a students individual potential in your subject?

How do we choose the right evaluation methods?


Criteria: 1. Is the evaluation method the most appropriate to measure progress towards the objective? 2. Can the instrument be differentiated?

Types of informal and formal evaluation methods (summative and formative)


Observations, conversations and feedback

Tests and exams


Academic hints Projects, simulations

Essential questions (examples)


How do you cultivate and sustain cultures of high expectations and goodness?
Why do we need to learn a foreign language? Why do we need to learn how to add (read)? Why care? Why is sound important? Why do we read, write and tell stories? Why do we need to learn about different countries? How does energy change?

The art of questioning


Paradigm shift:

The teacher does not have to answer all the questions. Start a habit of answer a question with a question.
Habit of centering all classes on the student (on learning vs. on teaching)

Rubrics and criteria


Rubrics can be simple or detailed.

Basado en el Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, Portland, OR 2000

Step 3. Lesson Plans (Activities, Experiences and Instruction)


What activities will provide students with the knowledge and skills needed in this subject (in this unit, in this class)? What should be taught and how should I teach it in order to reach my stated goals? What materials are needed to conduct the activities?

Adopted from Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe (1998), Understanding by Design.

Good Learning Environments


Seven factors in good learning environments:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Safe environment Intellectual freedom Respect Self-directed Paced challenges Active learning Feedback
Billington. Seven Characteristics of Highly Effective Learning Programs, 1997.

Three considerations in making rubrics


1. 2. Holistic or analytic? Generic or specific?

3.

Scale?

Holistic or analytic?
Holistic Whole product Analytic Divides product into various characteristics and awards each part.

For example, in a math class the teacher can choose to give a grade based on the final answer, or to give partial credit for steps in the resolution of the problem

Generic of specific?
GENERIC SPECIFIC Use the same rubric to grade While specific rubrics daily activities are designed for a specific activity.

For example, a language teacher can design a rubric for class participation which is used on a daily basis, or she can design a rubric for a specific class presentation.

Scale?
Scales be from 1 to 1000, depending on the local criteria. The decision about the number of points is determined by the range of you want to reflect. Typical: 5 points, but4 is better!

Applications
Options:
Some teachers give rubrics to student at the beginning of the semester or unit. Others give rubrics at the start of each graded activity. Others develop the rubric with the students.

What are evaluations accommodations?


According to A Mind at a Time: Accommodations are small adjustments in the way we teach or grade in order to help each student find success in class.

(If they are extreme, they neither help the student nor the teacher, however.)
Source:: Mel Levine, 2000.

Simple accommodations
SPACE: Change a students seat (to improve concentration). PERSON: Permit feedback or evaluation in small groups or by peers, parents or the student himself. TIME: Give more time to the student (so long as the task is not time-dependent). (For example, if the purpose is to value the quality of writing, does it really need to be timed?)
Source:: Mel Levine, 2000.

To differentiate in evaluation
1. Start with a good diagnosis: What aspect of learning troubles the student?
2. Choose the correct evaluation tool based on the objectives (competencies). Use rubrics to consider Product, Process and Progress. 3. Apply accommodations.

Final Big Ideas

Semilingualism
The term semilingualism is often used to describe the language situation of immigrant and language minority populations whose native language may be different from the standards of their native country, yet whose second language is also considered substandard.

What kind of an Issue?


Identity? Linguistic? Political?

Ex.: Does English as a third language help or hurt immigrants in Holland?


English as a high prestige language: Europes lingua franca in 2005. Bilinguals performed better learning English (as a third language) than monolinguals. The more languages you know, the easier it gets to learn an additional one. Third-language learners are highly successful; they learn more language faster than second language learners of the same target language; and (2) their behaviours are those of the self-directed learner.

English as a third language HELPS low income children in Holland when


School programs are accompanied by
(1) Home stimulation and support for all three languages with special emphasis on native language fluency; (2) Parents' motivation for schooling is high and the give value to their childrens efforts; and (3) Children's self-esteem is integrated into the academic, social, cultural and cognitive goals of multilingualism.

Future challenges
The practical obstacles include Continual increase in immigrant community growth. Shortage of teachers who can teach with knowledge of students native languages A complex set of legal, administrative and funding issues in urban school districts that balance the needs of schools The political obstacles include Wariness and lack of support among substantial portions of the population. Rights of new immigrants a priority? Threat to the status of Dutch

UNESCO recommendation
Mother tongue education and multilingualism are increasingly accepted around the world and speaking ones own language is more and more a right. International Mother Language Day, proclaimed in 1999 by UNESCO and marked on 21 February each year, is one example.

UNESCO recommendation
Encouraging education in the mother tongue, alongside bilingual or multilingual education, is one of the principles set out by UNESCO in a new position paper. This includes: 1. Promoting education in the mother tongue to improve the quality of education. 2. Encouraging bilingual and/or multilingual education at all levels of schooling as a means of furthering social and gender equality and as a key part of linguistically diverse societies. 3. Pushing languages as a central part of inter-cultural education.

National Language Policy


Language is a sensitive political issue, as it is a profound symbol of national and personal identity.

In the Netherlands, itself containing a high percentage of immigrants, research has begun into the common challenges facing both "old" and "new [language minorities]. Whether or not the EU is willing to include the thorny issue of immigration in a future language policy remains a point of debate

Questions?
Thank you for coming!

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