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Neurology

Dr Tim Coughlin and Dr Karan Wadhwa

Objectives
Overview basic neuroanatomy Outline CNS and PNS examination Common neurolological deficits and
their causes

Demonstrate using iTunes to review


this lecture and subscribe to the podcast!

http://www.medem.com/MedLB/article_detaillb.cfm?article_ID=ZZZ0ZFP46JC&sub_cat=75

http://www.apparelyzed.com/spinalcord.html

1 - Olfactory 2 - Optic 3 - Oculomotor 4 - Trochlear 5 - Trigeminal 6 - Abducens 7 - Facial 8 - Vestibulocochlea 9 - Glossopharyngea 10 - Vagus 11 - Accessory 12 - Hypoglossal
http://library.thinkquest.org/11965/html/cyber-anatomy_ner692.html

http://www.alsa.org/images/cms/Research/Topics/disease_process.jpg

1-12 in order (visual movements


incorporating nerves 3-6 are assessed together) throughout

Clinical Examination of Cranial Nervous System

Aim is to be smooth and observant

Olfactory
Have you had any change in your
sense of smell recently? if correctly identified. practice.

Can use coffee/orange smells to see Not routinely examined in clinical

Optic acuity. Assess visual Can you read my badge? Does


Snellen chart would be ideal, but
not routinely done in clinical practice.

my face look whole to you, are any parts missing?

Visual fields by confrontation.


use Amslers grid for greater accuracy).

(Can

To complete my examination I

http://www.unmc.edu/Physiology/Mann/mann7.html

Oculomotor, Abducens and Trochlear


Keeping you head perfectly still,
follow my finger with your eyes.

Make a H pattern with your finger. Do you see double anywhere? Look for nystagmus.

http://www.fotosearch.com/comp/LIF/LIF118/SA702031.jpg

Trigeminal Nerve
Two parts: - Sensory to face - Motor to muscles of mastication Assess sensation to face Determine if patient can open
mouth.

Clench your teeth - feel for


muscle bulk at Masseters

V1 - Opthalmic V2 - Maxillary V3 - Mandibular

Facial Nerve
Must assess at least 3 muscle
groups

Raise your eyebrows Show me your teeth Puff out your cheeks

Vestibulocochlear
Grossly assess by rustling fingers at
one ear and whispering in opposite. Rhines tests

Can confirm using Webers and

Glossopharyngeal and Vagus


Open your mouth. Say arrgh Look at palatal movement. Deviates
AWAY from affected side. done

Assess gag reflex - not routinely

Accessory
Put hand on one cheek, push me
away, and feel sternocleidomastoid bulk on opposite side.

Hypoglossal
Stick out your tongue Look for deviation TOWARDS
affected side.

Can assess power, but only if deficit


found on gross examination.

Peripheral Nervous System Examination


Aim is to be systematic Ensure you have permission,
adequate exposure and tendon hammer to hand.

Same system for upper and lower limb

Inspection Tone Power Reflexes Sensation Coordination

Inspection
Look for muscle wasting, scars,
abnormal movements, fasciculations.

Tone
Assess tone in upper limb by
holding hand and moving wrist. by rolling leg and looking at ankle movement, or lifting up leg by knee and dropping onto bed.

Tone in lower limb can be assessed

Power
Best assessed by moving joint into
neutral and moving all power groups in turn against your resistance. compare like with like. strong as you!

Needs to be systematic and Remember old people are not as

Reflexes
Elicit biceps, triceps and supinator
in upper limb. response.

Elicit knee , ankle and plantar

Sensation

Coordination Upper limb:


Touch the index finger of your right
hand to your nose, now using the same finger, touch my finger.

Place finger at a stretch from theirs. Look for intention tremor and pass
pointing.

Repeat for left hand side. Can also assess coordination by


looking for dysdiadokinesis.

Lower limb:

Place the heel of your right foot on Repeat for left hand side.

left knee and run foot down left shin and back to knee as fast as possible.

Patterns of disease
Upper motor neurone pathlogy
(stroke)

- Spastic paralysis - Hypertonic - Reduced power - Hyper-reflexia - Impaired coordination

Lower motor neurone pathology


(multiple sclerosis)

- Flaccid paralysis - Hypotonia - Reduced power - Hyporeflexia - Impaired coordination

Cerebellar Disease
Trauma, alcohol, SOL, old age

D A N I S H P

ysdiadokinesis taxia ystagmus ntenion tremor tacatto speech ypotonia endular reflexes

iTunes
Find podcast section Search for Medschool finals Subscribe to Dr Tim Coughlin and
Dr Karan Wadhwas Medschool Finals podcast

Completely free! Listen to podcasts and use website

http://web.mac.com/timcoughlin to download and review lectures

Summary
Outlined basic neuroanatomy Highlighted key aspects of
examination

Described major pathology and Using iTunes to review lectures

explained reasoning behind signs