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Submitted by Mrutyunjaya Sahoo Raju prajapati Manohar Dutt Hinchha Ram Janghel

Introduction
? Flow measurement is the quantification of bulk fluid movement (gas & liquid). It can be measured in a variety of ways. Both gas & liquid flow can be measured in volumetric flow rates (Q) or mass flow rates ()such as litres per second or kilograms per second.

Reynolds's Number The Reynoldss number is a very important reference number in the accurate determination of flow. It is used to determine the point at which the flow goes from the viscous stage to the turbulent stage. As flow changes from the viscous stage to the turbulent stage, there is a large change in the value of the flow co-effcient, but there is very little change for further increase in speed The Reynoldss number is a very important reference number in the accurate determination of flow.

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In differential pressure flow meters, for higher accuracy, Reynolds's number is very important. The Reynolds's number is given by the equation:

Re= VD/ where Re= Reynolds's number V = Avg. velocity. D = Inside pipe diameter. =Density of flowing fluid. = Absolute viscosity

Basic Requirements for Flow Measurement


Ability to Calibrate High Accuracy High Turn-Down Ratio Low Cost Low Sensitivity to Dirt Particles Low Pressure Loss No Moving Parts Resistant to Corrosion and Erosion

Types of flow measuring instruments

Differential pressure based flow metera) orifice flow meter. b) venturi flow meter. c) flow nozzles

Magnetic

flow meter. Vortex flow meter. Ultrasonic flow meter

Magnetic flow meter


The measuring principle is based on Faradays law of electromagnetic induction Faradays law of electromagnetic induction says that When a conductor is moved in a magnetic field , then a voltage is induced in the conductor. The voltage induced in case of electromagnetic flow meter is:

U=K.B.v.D , where

K= Instrumental constant B= strength of magnetic field v = Avg. velocity D= pipe diameter During the electromagnetic flow measurement the fluid passes through a magnetic field applied normally to the direction of flow

The induced voltage is taken to a converter by means of 2 electrodes which are in direct contact with the fluid. The converter then transmits a standard output signal (current). The output current is in the range of 4-20 mA. The movement of the liquid (electrically are conductive) induces an electric voltage which is proportional to the average flow velocity & therefore to the volume flow.

Advantages of magnetic flow meters


No

protruding parts inside the measuring tube, so no additional pressure loss. Only the lining of the pipe walls & and the electrodes are in contact with the measuring fluid. Measurement is independent of the flow profile and other characteristics of the fluid.

Vortex flow meter


The vortex flow meter is used for measuring the velocity of liquids in pipelines. The measuring principle is based on the development of a vortex in the wake of the body build into the pipeline. This process enables the measurement to be carried out in turbulent flow with a Reynolds number, Re>2000.(for linear measurement)

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A vortex-shedding body is installed perpendicularly to the axis of the flow. Due to which vortex-shedding is generated, called karman vortex street, with alternating pressure conditions. The frequency , f , of the karman vortex street is directly proportional to the flow velocity (v).

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The relationship between vortex shedding frequency (f in hz) with the diameter of the pipe (D) & the max. flow velocity (v) is given by:f= S.v/D where S is the proportionality constant. The vibrations of the vortex shedding body are picked up by sensors and then analysed in signal converters. The vibration frequency varies between 10hz & 7000 hz.

Ultrasonic flowmeter
ultrasonic flowmeters works in 2 different kind of principles: 1) Doppler Effect Ultrasonic Flowmeter The Doppler Effect Ultrasonic Flowmeter uses reflected ultrasonic sound to measure the fluid velocity. By measuring the frequency shift between the ultrasonic frequency source, the receiver and the fluid carrier. In this the relative motion are measured. The resulting frequency shift is named the Doppler Effect. 2) Transit Time Difference Ultrasonic Flowmeter With the Time of Flight Ultrasonic Flowmeter the time for the sound to travel between a transmitter and a receiver is measured. This method is not dependable on the particles in the fluid.

DP based flow meter


These are also called variable head flow meters. Types of D.P flow meters:1)orifice flow meters. 2)venturi flow meters 3)flow nozzles. The d.p flow meters operates on the principle that an obstruction in the pipe of a flowing fluid produces a differential pressure across the obstruction.

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This differential pressure is proportional to the flow rate. The flow rate is proportional to the square root of the differential pressure. This relationship is derived from Bernoullis theorem. Bernoulli theorem states that in a flowing stream, the sum of pressure head, velocity head & elevation head at one point is equal to their sum at another point

Advantages of D.P flow meters

Cost is relatively low for large lines. It is accurate and reliable. It can be easily removed without shutting down the process. It is adaptable to any pipe size and flow rate. It offers the widest applicational coverage of any type of flow meter.

Disadvantages of D.P flow meters

There is high pressure loss in it. It is difficult to use for slurry services. It exhibits a square root relationship head & flow rate , rather than linear characteristics. Low flow rates are not easily measured with these meters. Its accuracy is dependent on fixed fluid characteristics such as temp., pressure, specific gravity, etc.

Venturi flow meter


Venturi meter was invented by Clemens Hershel and named in the honour of an Italian engineer Venturi. It is mostly used in water flow measurement , particularly in large size pipes & for large flow rates. Some of the imp. Constructional features are:1) cylindrical entrance :this section has the size of the pipe to which it is attached.

2) Converging conical system: The converging takes place at an angle of 21 2. The velocity increases & pressure falls. 3) Throat: It is a cylindrical section of minimum area At this point velocity is max. & pressure is minimum. 4) Diverging conical system: Here there is a change of stream area back to the entrance area. The recovery of kinetic energy by its conversion to pressure is complete & overall pressure loss is small.

Advantages:Loss of head due to installation in the pipelines is small. High coefficient of discharge. Less likelihood of becoming clogged by sediments.

Disadvantages:

Due to long lying length, space requirement is high. Quite expensive in installation & replacement.

Orifice flow meter


The orifice meter consists of a thin, circular metal plate with a hole in it. The plate is held in the pipe line between two flanges called orifice flanges. The flow characteristics of the orifice differs from those of the nozzle in that minimum section of the stream tube which occurs not with in the orifice but downstream from the orifice edge.

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The minimum area is called vena contracta. It is the area where the minimum pressure is obtained. The location of the vena contracta depends on Reynolds number, area ratio between orifice and pipe, the roughness of the pipe & the compressibility of the fluid. By measuring the difference in the fluid pressure between the normal pipe section & the vena contracta, the flow rate can be determined from the Bernoullis equation

Flow nozzle:

Flow diagram of Cojet system

Cojet system is used in Electric arc Furnace for shrouding & oxygen lancing. In cojet system, we have:1) Flow valves. (on-off valves). 2) Flow transmitter. 3) Flow control valves. 4) Pressure transmitters. Firstly, the flow valves are opened. The flow valve can only be in either on state (100% open) or off state(0% open).

The flow transmitter measures the flow of the fluid & sends electrical signals corresponding to the flow of the fluid. The flow control valve controls the flow of the fluid passing through the pipeline. The flow control valve can be of 2 types. 1) Air to open. 2) Air to close. The pressure transmitter measures the back pressure,if any,in the pipeline & sends signals corresponding to the magnitude of back pressure

The back pressure is caused by chocking of the pipeline due to solid particles present in the fluid. There are three main lines which enters injector 1. 1) Main oxygen line. 2) Post combustion line. 3) Shroud oxygen line. The post combustion line is not in use. Similarly there is one propane line which also consists of flow valves, flow transmitter, flow control valve & pressure transmitter,

In oxygen line, after flow valves , there is one pressure transmitter & one RTD ( Resistance Temperature Detector). This pressure transmitter is used to measure the pressure in the pipeline before oxygen is released in the pipes & RTD measures the temperature. There is one air line which is connected to the flow control valves as it is operated by air.

Installations

Pressure transmitter:At cojet:Company Siemens Measuring span - 0.63-68 bar Output- 4-20mA Supply- 10.5 45 V d.c Installed at- Propane line

Differential pressure transmitter: Company: Yokogawa Calibration: 0 to 250 mmwc Pressure Transmitter: At steam & water line:Company Yokogawa Output- 4-20mA Supply- 10.5 45 V d.c

At Argon line (S.M.S):Company Rosemount Measuring span - 0- 10 torr Output- 4-20mA Supply- 10.5 45 V d.c

Flow transmitter:-

At cojet:Company Yokogawa Output- 4-20mA Supply- 10.5 45 V d.c Range - 0.-100 Nm3/hr. At CCM (primary water line):Company Yokogawa Fluid temp- -40 to 60C Ambient temp- -20 to 60C Supply- 10.5 45 V d.c Range - 0 to 2200 LPM

Flow valves:
At cojet: Max. pressure: 8 bar Output torque: 4 bar Max. flow : 216 Nm Min. flow : 132 Nm Solenoid valve: Company : AVCO Input: 24V d.c Range : 2 to 10 bar, temp: 80C

Calibration of flow transmitter


The calibration of the flow transmitter is done with the help of a calibration bench. The flow transmitters have a high side and a low side. A 24 v d.c supply is given to the flow transmitter in series & a multimeter is also connected in series. If the high side and the low side are maintained at equal pressure & 24 v supply is given, then we must get 4mA at the multimeter

If the multimeter reading is not equal to 4 mA then the flow transmitter is needed to be calibrated. Then the low side & high side of the flow transmitter is maintained at atmospheric pressure & the zero pot of flow meter is adjusted till 4 mA appears at the multimeter. Then the high side is maintained at the highest pressure ( i.e at 1200 mmwc ,for a flow transmitter of range 0-1200mmwc

Then the span pot of the flow transmitter is adjusted till we get 20 mA at the multimeter. In different flow meters , there are different provisions for the adjustment of zero & span pot. The master calibrator is used for applying pressure at the high side of the transmitter. Make- Yokogawa & range is 200kPa. The master calibrator works on the pneumatic principle.

The calibration of flow meters is also done with the help of brain terminal device & heart terminal device. Some flow meters can be calibrated by brain terminal ( having suffix D) & Some flow meters can be calibrated by heart terminal ( having suffix E). With the help of brain terminal device & heart terminal device , we can also change the operating range of the flowmeter.

Difference between flow & pressure measurement


Flow of fluid is a measure of how much volume of water passes a specific point per second. Pressure of fluid is the measure of the force of gravity being exerted on the mass of the water. The flow of fluid depends on the viscosity & speed of the water. The Pressure of fluid depends on the height above the reference and the density of the water.

For flow measurement, the pressure tapping are taken before & after the obstruction in the flow of the fluid. Both the tapping are mounted on the meter itself. For pressure measurement, only one tapping is taken from the meter. The other tapping is held in air for the atmospheric pressure. For flow measurement, the difference between the pressure of the fluid before & after the obstruction is taken

For pressure measurement, the difference between the fluid pressure & the atmospheric pressure is taken. Flow meters are used for flow measurement. Pressure gauges or vacuum gauges are used for pressure measurement