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By Mark Cichocki, R.N., About.com Guide Updated March 19, 2010 About.

com Health's Disease and Condition content is reviewed by the Medical Review Board

Ayunda Shinta Nurarliah

HIV Binding

HIV binding to the CD4 target cell

The HIV infection starts with the attachment of HIV by way of the gp120 protein to the CD4 target cell.

Penetration

Penetration of the genetic material

After attachement, HIV releases genetic material into the CD4 cell.

Uncoating

Uncoating of the viral RNA

Partial uncoating of the viral core occurs to expose the viral RNA. Once in the cell cytoplasm, the conversion of the viral RNA into double-stranded DNA commences as the viral reverse transcriptase becomes active.

Reverse Transcriptase

Synthesis od double stranded DNA

Reverse transcriptase synthesizes a double-stranded DNA copy of the single-stranded viral RNA generating a provirus.

Integration

Integration of DNA into the host cell.

The viral DNA migrates to and enters the host cell nucleus and becomes integrated into the cell DNA with the help of the enzyme integrase.

Transcription

Changing DNA to RNA.

Once inside the host cell nucleus, the RNA changes viral DNA into RNA.

Translation

The viral RNA leaves the cell.

The viral mRNA leaves the nucleus. The translation of the viral mRNA results in the synthesis of three polyproteins essential in the continue process of viral reproduction.

Assembly

Viral assembly

Proteins associate with the inner surface of the plasma membrane and interact with proteins present in the plasma membrane. As these proteins accumulate on the inner surface of the plasma membrane, they aggregate and commence assembly to form the virus. As assembly continues, the new HIV leaves the cell.

Extrusion

The new virus gets its lipid coating.

As the virus buds from the cell, it acquires a lipid coat, carrying the gp 120 and gp 41 proteins. The virus is extruded into extra-cellular space in this immature state.

Maturation

HIV matures and the cycle starts again.

During (or soon after) the budding of the new HIV particle from the host cell membrane, the viral proteinase in p160 becomes active, generating the mature form of HIV. It's at this final step the the cycle begins again to form more HIV.

Maturation

HIV matures and the cycle starts again.

During (or soon after) the budding of the new HIV particle from the host cell membrane, the viral proteinase in p160 becomes active, generating the mature form of HIV. It's at this final step the the cycle begins again to form more HIV.

Mark Cichocki, R.N. AIDS / HIV Guide Mark Cichocki RN is an HIV/AIDS nurse educator at the University of Michigan's HIV/AIDS Treatment Program. Mark is the author of the book "Living with HIV: A Patient's Guide" Experience: Mark has developed and contributed to many online health education sites, providing written HIV/AIDS education material for numerous organizations locally and across the country. He is a published author and also has extensive nursing experience in many specialties, providing his viewers with excellent comprehensive health education across the entire spectrum of health care. Education: He studied at the University of Toledo and holds nursing licenses in both Michigan and Ohio. From Mark Cichocki, R.N.: I look forward to serving as your HIV/AIDS Guide. I approach this task knowing that HIV effects the whole person in many different ways. My goal is to provide information that will allow you take control of your life. My role is to educate my viewers while providing a supportive, safe, and enjoyable community. Welcome to HIV/AIDS at About.com.