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BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR

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OUTLINE
1. 2. 3. 4. NERVOUS SYSTEM CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM EFFECTORS 4.1 GLANDS 4.2 MUSCLES

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Overview

Psychological events in the life of an individual are so closely related to Biology that it is impossible to understand behavior without knowing the biological structures and processes.

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This pictorial representation shows the central nervous system (CNS, composed of brain and spinal cord) and some of the nerves of the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

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DEFINITION OF TERMS
Biopsychology Also called Neuropsychology the specialty in psychology that studies the interaction of biology, behavior, and the environment. Nervous System Complex arrangement of highly specialized cells throughout the body enabling the organism to respond to different stimuli.
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Components of the Nervous System


Central Nervous System (CNS) 1. Brain 2. Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Includes nerve outside the brain (cranial nerves) and spinal cord (spinal nerves) 2 divisions: 1. Sensory/Afferent Division 2. Motor/Efferent Division 2.1 Somatic Nervous System 2.2 Autonomic Nervous System 2.2.1 Sympathetic Nervous System 2.2.2 Parasympathetic Nervous System
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Organization of the Nervous System

Figure 7.2
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Functions of the Nervous System


1. Sensory Input gathering information To monitor changes occurring inside and outside the body Changes = stimuli 2. Integration To process and interpret sensory input and decide if action is needed 3. Motor Output A response to integrated stimuli The response activates muscles or glands
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Functions of the Nervous System

Figure 7.1
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Divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System


Sensory (Afferent) Division Nerve fibers that carry information to the central nervous system Motor (Efferent) Division Nerve fibers that carry impulses away from the central nervous system

Figure 7.1
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Functional Classification of the Peripheral Nervous System


Motor (Efferent) Division Two subdivisions
Somatic Nervous System = voluntary Autonomic Nervous System = involuntary

Figure 7.1
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Central Nervous System (CNS)

BRAIN
The brain, with its complex parts and nerve networks organizes and controls the ways in which we receive, process, and respond to information from our environment Enclosed in a CRANIAL BONE (SKULL) 90% of the bodys neurons can be found in the brain

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Central Nervous System (CNS)


BRAIN Covered by 3 membranes: a. Dura Mater (tough mother) outer layer which is a tough covering b. Arachnoid Mater (spider-resembling mother) the spongy middle layer c. Pia Mater (soft or gentle mother) innermost layer which adheres to the surface of the brain and spinal cord

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Alterations in Normal Meningeal Structures

A serious threat on the brain and the spinal cord if bacteria or viruses enter the meninges.
The inflammation and infection of the meninges is called meningitis. This inflammation may spread into the nervous tissue that would result to encephalitis. To diagnose problems in meningeal layers, a sample of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space should be subject to culture and sensitivity test.
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Central Nervous System (CNS)

BRAIN Has 3 major divisions: 1. Hindbrain 2. Midbrain 3. Forebrain

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HINDBRAIN
1. MEDULLA OBLONGATA The lowest portion of the brain, which connects with the spinal cord. Functions: 1) It has the cardiovascular center - It controls the rate and force of heart beat, blood pressure, constriction and dilation of blood vessels. 2) It has the breathing center - it controls the involuntary breathing mechanism. 3) It also controls activities such as sneezing, coughing, swallowing, salivation and vomiting.
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Brain Stem

Figure 7.15a
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HINDBRAIN 2. CEREBELLUM
Located at the back and above the medulla Functions: a. Controls body balance while walking, swimming, riding, etc. b. Maintains body posture c. Responsible for precision and fine control of voluntary movements. For example, actions like eating are possible while talking or listening d. Controls tonicity of skeletal muscles
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HINDBRAIN

3. PONS Located just above the medulla Contains nerve fibers that connect both hemispheres of the cerebellum with each other Contains nerve fibers that transmit neural impulses upward and downward within the Central Nervous System
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MIDBRAIN
It is a small portion of the brain that serves as a relay center for sensory information from the ears to the cerebrum. Contains nerve fibers that connect the cerebrum with the brain stem and the spinal cord Contains neurons that are important for auditory and visual functions such as regulation of the size of the pupil of the eye.

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FOREBRAIN
The highest part of the brain 3 main parts: 1. THALAMUS 2. HYPOTHALAMUS 3. CEREBRUM

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FOREBRAIN
1. THALAMUS The brains major relay station Connects the lower structure of the brain and the spinal cord with the cerebrum

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FOREBRAIN
SYSTEM A complex organization of neural structures and pathways carrying messages between the lower and higher parts of the brain Functions: a. Receives sensory messages from the visceral organs and helps control their activities b. Plays a role in emotion, memory, motivation, and reinforcement

S LIMBIC

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FOREBRAIN
2. HYPOTHALAMUS
Located just below the pituitary glands The most important control center for the visceral activities of the body Functions: a. Controls sleep-waking cycles, heartbeat, digestion, breathing, and other vital processes b. Controls hunger, thirst, body temperature, water balance, blood pressure, reproductive behavior, and emotions
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FOREBRAIN
3. CEREBRUM
Contains regions concerned with motor activities, skin sense, hearing, vision, and higher mental processes The largest part of the brain which is divided into 2 halves called CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. Functions: responsible for the intelligence, thinking, memory, consciousness and will power

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FOREBRAIN
CEREBRUM Corpus Callosum: a strap of white matter which keeps the 2 hemispheres in communication with each other Each cerebral hemisphere is divided into 4 parts: a. Frontal Lobe motor area b. Parietal Lobe cutaneous and kinesthetic center c. Occipital Lobe visual center d. Temporal Lobe hearing area
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S 3.

LOBES OF THE CEREBRUM

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FOREBRAIN
CEREBRUM (more than half of the brains mass) Has 2 hemispheres (left and right) LEFT CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE receives sensory impressions and controls the movement of the RIGHT SIDE OF THE BODY RIGHT CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE controls the LEFT SIDE OF THE BODY. One of the 2 hemispheres is dominant. It plays the greater part in controlling physical skills, reading, writing, and speech. Kogan (1972) states that the dominant hemisphere is the LEFT.
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S 3.

FOREBRAIN
Responsible for skills related to speaking, writing, language, handling numbers RIGHT CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE Functions for non-verbal skills such as appreciation of music, drawing, and perceptual tasks

S LEFT CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE

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Lobes of the Cerebrum

Figure 7.15a
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SPINAL CORD
of the VERTEBRAL COLUMN Enclosed in a VERTEBRAE (bone) Through its opening, the spinal nerves enter and emerge from the spinal cord Composed of a. GRAY MATTER butterfly-shaped mass found at the center of the spinal cord, which contains the connector neurons necessary for reflex action b. WHITE MATTER Composed of nerve fibers which are covered with MYELIN SHEATH.
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S It is a long tapering tube, which occupies the hollow interior

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SPINAL CORD

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SPINAL CORD
FUNCTIONS: 1) Coordinating simple spinal reflexes REFLEX - rapid, predictable, and involuntary responses to stimuli; automatic actions 2) Coordinating autonomic reflexes like the contraction of the bladder 3) Conducting messages from muscles and skin to the brain 4) Conducting messages from brain to the trunk and limbs
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Neurons
Also called nerve cells Building blocks of the nervous system Cells specialized to transmit messages When neurons are grouped together, it is called a nerve Parts:
Cell Body nucleus and metabolic center of the cell Processes fibers that extend from the cell body; includes axons and dendrites

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Neuron Anatomy
Cell Body

Contains nucleus & performs the metabolic processes

Figure 7.4ab
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Neuron Anatomy
Dendrites

long branch-like extensions of the neurons, which receive impulses from other neurons and conduct impulses toward the cell body

Figure 7.4a
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Neuron Anatomy
Axon

A single sometimes branched extension that conducts neural impulses away from the cell body.

Figure 7.4a
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Axons
Covered by MYELIN SHEATH, which speeds up the conduction of neural impulses. At the end of each axon are button-like projections called TERMINAL BUTTONS, which contain small packets called SYNAPTIC VESICLES, where chemical transmitter substances called neurotransmitters are stored.

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Neurons
Have many dendrites but generally has only 1 axon

The spaces between the endings of neurons are called SYNAPSE.


Nerve impulses jump through these synapses as they travel from one neuron to another NERVE IMPULSE the electrochemical energy which brings about a change in a nerve fiber. It is a simple electric current flowing through a nerve and throughout the body
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Neurotransmitters

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Functional Classification of Neurons


Sensory (Afferent) Neurons

Carry impulses from the sensory receptors towards the Central Nervous System
Cutaneous sense organs Proprioceptors detect stretch or tension

Motor (Efferent) Neurons Carry impulses from the Central Nervous System to the reactors
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Functional Classification of Neurons


Interneurons (Association or Connecting Neurons) Connect impulses from the axon of a sensory neuron to the dendrite of a motor neurons Located between the sensory and motor neuron

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Functional Properties of Neurons Irritability ability to respond to stimuli

Conductivity ability to transmit an impulse

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Protection of the Nervous System


Scalp and skin Skull (brain) and vertebral column (spinal cord Meninges (dura, arachnoid, pia) Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Blood-brain barrier (BBB)

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Cerebrospinal Fluid
Similar to blood plasma composition
Forms a watery cushion to protect the brain

Circulated in arachnoid space, ventricles, and central canal of the spinal cord

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Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB)


Includes the least permeable capillaries of the body
Excludes many potentially harmful substances Useless against some substances Fats and fat soluble molecules Respiratory gases Alcohol Nicotine

Anesthesia

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Peripheral Nervous System


Connects internal organs, glands, and muscles to the Central Nervous System
Made up of two parts: a. Somatic Nervous System b. Autonomic Nervous System

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Somatic Nervous System


Consists of sensory nerves and motor nerves that connect the spinal cord to the striated muscles. It transmits impulses from receptors to the brain and spinal cord, and from here, impulses are transmitted to the striated muscles. Voluntary movements, posture, and some reflexes are under the control of this system. b. Autonomic Nervous System

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Autonomic Nervous System


Consists of MOTOR NERVES from the central nervous system to the smooth muscles and glands It transmits impulses from the brain to the smooth muscles Its primary role is related to the regulation of vital body processes such as heartbeat, digestion, excretion, salivation, sexual behavior, perspiration, and activation of muscles and glands Divided into: a. Sympathetic Nervous System b. Parasympathetic Nervous System
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Autonomic Nervous System


Divided into: a. Sympathetic Nervous System Produces the FIGHT-OR-FLIGHT RESPONSE because it is activated during stressful and emergency situations Prepares the body for expenditure of energy Accelerates the heartbeat, slows down movement of stomach and intestines, and dilates the pupils

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Autonomic Nervous System


b. Parasympathetic Nervous System Produces the REST-AND-DIGEST RESPONSE because it is the housekeeping subdivision that governs the regular body processes to restore the bodys supply of energy (returns the body into a relaxation period after sympathetic arousal) Slows down the heartbeat, dilates the blood vessels of the abdomen, increases salivary secretion, speeds up movement of the stomach and intestines

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Autonomic Nervous System


Sympathetic division is dominant during fear and excitement, but a not-uncommon parasympathetic response to fear such as involuntary discharge of the bladder or bowels is represented. Another example is the complete sex act in the male that requires erection (parasympathetic), followed by ejaculation (sympathetic).

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SOMATIC VS. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

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Classification of Nerves
Mixed Nerves both sensory and motor fibers
Afferent (Sensory) Nerves carry impulses toward the CNS Efferent (Motor) Nerves carry impulses away from the CNS

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Cranial Nerves
12 pairs of nerves that mostly serve the head and neck Numbered in order, front to back Serve as: a. Sensory nerves for vision, audition (hearing), olfaction, and gustation (taste) b. Motor nerves for the eyeball, jaw, tongue, and other parts of the neck

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Distribution of Cranial Nerves

Figure 7.21
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Cranial Nerves
I Olfactory nerve for smell II Optic nerve for vision III Oculomotor nerve for eyelid and eyeball movement IV Trochlear nerve innervates superior oblique eye muscle and turns eye downward and laterally V Trigeminal nerve for chewing, face and mouth, and touch and pain VI Abducens nerve turns eye laterally
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Cranial Nerves
VII Facial nerve controls most facial expressions, secretion of tears and saliva, and taste VIII Vestibulocochlear nerve for balance and hearing IX Glossopharyngeal nerve for taste and senses carotid blood pressure X Vagus nerve senses aortic blood pressure, slows heart rate, stimulates digestive organs, and taste XI Accessory nerve controls swallowing movements XII Hypoglossal nerve controls tongue movements

Oh, Oh, Oh To Touch And Feel Very Good Velvet AH


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Spinal Nerves
There is a pair of spinal nerves at the level of each vertebrae for a total of 31 pairs: 8 cervical nerves, 12 thoracic nerves, 5 lumbar nerves, 5 sacral nerves, and 1 coccygeal nerve
Spinal nerves are named for the region from which they arise

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Spinal Nerves

Figure 7.22a
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Development Aspects of the Nervous System


The nervous system is formed during the first month of embryonic development Any maternal infection can have extremely harmful effects The hypothalamus is one of the last areas of the brain to develop

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Development Aspects of the Nervous System


No more neurons are formed after birth, but growth and maturation continues for several years The brain reaches maximum weight as a young adult

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How Nerves Transmit Impulses


Neurons send messages in an electrochemical manner chemicals or ions bring about an electrical impulse. Both neurons as well as muscle cells have the property to be electrically excitable, so they can send electrical nerve impulses which are brought about because of certain events in the cell membrane.

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How Nerves Transmit Impulses


The nervous system primarily works by carrying out an electrical impulse or a signal through the length of a nerve and sends it across the synaptic cleft to a muscle fiber or to another nerve. As soon as a nerve impulse gets to the terminus of a nerve, a flood of ions endorses the discharge of vesicles that have neurotransmitters (like acetylcholine), which then allows this messenger molecule to spread throughout the synaptic cleft and attach to specific receptors.

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EFFECTORS
Refers to the muscles and glands which act as a response over efferent or motor neurons.

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THE GLANDS
Specialized organs located throughout the body that secretes special substances such as sweat, milk, or a particular hormone. Serve as reacting mechanisms of the body. 2 kinds: a. Endocrine Glands Ductless glands Secrete chemical substances called hormones, which are directly poured into the bloodstream b. Exocrine Glands Release their secretions through tubes or ducts. The ducts then carry the secretions into the body cavities, into the lumens of various organs, or to the external surface of the body.
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ENDOCRINE GLANDS
Pineal Gland
Pituitary Gland

Thyroid Gland
Parathyroid Gland

Adrenal Gland
Thymus Gland

Pancreas
Gonads
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Pituitary Gland
About the size of a grape and Hangs by a stalk from the hypothalamus Being the Master Gland, it supplies hormones to the other glands to stimulate the production of their own hormones Has two functional lobes Anterior Pituitary Lobe Glandular tissue Secretes hormones that control growth, milk secretion, and metabolism Posterior Pituitary Lobe Nervous tissue Regulates the secretion of urine (antidiuretic hormone) and causes contraction of the uterus during labor (oxytocin)
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Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary

Figure 9.4
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Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary

Figure 9.5
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Pituitary Gland
Hyposecretion of the hormones of the anterior lobe causes: a. Dwarfism b. Infantilism failure of the sex organs to develop Hypersecretion of the hormones of the anterior lobe causes: a. Gigantism Hyposecretion of the hormones of the posterior lobe causes: a. Diabetes b. Excessive secretion of urine

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Thyroid Gland
Found at the base of the throat Consists of two lobes and a connecting isthmus Produces thyroid hormone Iodine helps the thyroid gland maintain its normal function

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THYROXINE regulates metabolic rate regulates mental and physical development helps in absorption of glucose from intestine

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Thyroid Gland
Underactivity of the thyroid gland is associated with sluggishness, apathy, and low energy Overfunctioning of the thyroid gland results to irritability and excitability. Undersecretion of thyroid gland produces CRETINISM (dwarfism and mental retardation due to imperfect development of thyroid gland; stunted physical and mental growth) Oversecretion of thyroid gland leads to GOITER in which the person shows a marked increase in metabolic rate, protrusion of eyes, rapid heart rate and shortness of breath
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CRETINISM

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Thyroid Gland

Figure 9.6
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Parathyroid Glands
Four-lobed glands attached to the thyroid Secrete parathyroid hormone Helps maintain calcium and phosphorus balance in the blood to prevent irritation of the nervous structure and tetany (intermittent contraction of muscles) Undersecretion/deficiency causes brittle bones. Oversecretion softens the teeth and bones.

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Adrenal Glands
Two glands sitting on the top of the kidneys Parts: Adrenal Cortex
Outer glandular region in three layers

Adrenal Medulla
Inner neural tissue region

Underactivity of this gland leads to tendency to become easily fatigued. Excessive activity of this gland develops tension in the individual

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Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex


Mineralocorticoids (mainly aldosterone) Regulate mineral content in blood, water, and electrolyte balance Glucocorticoids (including cortisone and cortisol) Promote normal cell metabolism Help resist long-term stressors Sex Hormones Androgens (male) and some estrogen (female)

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Hormones of the Adrenal Medulla


Produces two similar hormones (catecholamines)
Epinephrine/Adrenalin

Norepinephrine/Noradrenalin
These hormones prepare the body to deal with shortterm stress (enable the person to cope with emergency situations)

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Pancreatic Islets
Groups of cells located in the pancreas Produce hormones Insulin allows glucose to cross plasma membranes into cells from beta cells Glucagon allows glucose to enter the blood from alpha cells These hormones are antagonists that maintain blood sugar homeostasis (controls blood sugar level)

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Pancreatic Islets

Figure 9.13
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Regulation of Blood Glucose

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Pancreatic Hormones and Blood Sugar

Figure 9.14
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Pineal Gland
Located between the 2 cerebral hemispheres of the brain Secretes melatonin Helps establish the bodys wake and sleep cycles Regulates the sexual cycle Oversecretion results in Undersecretion results in

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Thymus Gland
Located posterior to the sternum; situated in the upper chest near the front side of the heart. At birth the gland is quite small, weighting about 10 grams, and increases in size in the adult Produces thymosin Accelerates cell division, thus influencing the rate of growth during early life Matures some types of white blood cells Important in developing the immune system Its production decreases with advancing age and entirely cases by about 50 years
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Gonads
Produce hormones that control physical development and reproductive behavior Types: a. Male Gonads Testes Located in the scrotum Produces several androgens, the most important of which is testosterone
b. Female Gonads Ovaries Produce estrogen and progesterone

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Hormones of the Ovaries


Estrogens Stimulates the development of secondary female characteristics Matures female reproductive organs Helps prepare the uterus to receive a fertilized egg Helps maintain pregnancy Prepares the breasts to produce milk Progesterone Acts with estrogen to bring about the menstrual cycle Helps in the implantation of an embryo in the uterus

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Hormones of the Testes


Testosterone
Responsible for adult male secondary sex characteristics Promotes growth and maturation of male reproductive system

Required for sperm cell production

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EXOCRINE GLANDS & THEIR SECRETIONS

Lacrimal Gland
Salivary Gland

Tears
Saliva

Sweat Gland

Perspiration/Sweat
Sebum

Sebaceous Gland -

Mammary Gland Gastric Gland -

Milk
Digestive Juices

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Developmental Aspects of the Endocrine System


Most endocrine organs operate smoothly until old age Menopause is brought about by lack of efficiency of the ovaries
Problems associated with reduced estrogen are common Growth hormone production declines with age

Many endocrine glands decrease output with age


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