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What is a Robot?

Definition of Robot 1. Webster:

An automatic apparatus or device that performs functions ordinarily ascribed to human beings or operates with what appears to be almost human intelligence
2. Robot Institute of America A robot is a re-programmable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of variety of tasks

Technologies that go to make up a robot

Mechanical Engineering Design of the mechanism.Understanding of the kinematics and dynamics of the system. Electronic Engineering Design of the actuator and sensor systems. Systems Engineering

Analysis and integration of the overall system. Signal conditioning and Control.
Computer Science
2 Design of the logic, intelligence or adaptability, networking

Robot Characteristics
1. The following definition are used to characterized robot specification i. Payload ii. Reach iii. Precession iv. Repeatability

Robot Characteristics (cont)

Payload Payload is the weight a robot can carry and still remain within its other specifications E.g. A robot maximum load capacity may be much larger than its specified payload, but at maximum level it may become less accurate, may not follow its intended path accurately, or may have excessive deflections

Robot Characteristics (cont)

Reach Maximum distance a robot can reach within its work envelope Precision (validity) Defined as how accurately a specified point can be reached. Most industrial robot can have precision of 0.001 inch or better

Robot Characteristics (cont)

Repeatability (variability) Repeatability is how accurate the same position can be reached of the motion repeated many times. Repeatability is more important than precision If a robot is not precise, it will generally show a consistent error, which can be predicted and thus corrected using programming. If the error is random, it cannot be predicted and thus cannot be eliminated. Most industrial robots have repeatability in the 0.001 6 inch range

Advantages & Disadvantages of Robots


Robotics and automation can, in many situations increase productivity, safety,efficiency, quality and consistency of product
Robot can work in hazardous environments without the need of life support, comfort or concern about safety Robot needs no environmental comfort, such as lightning, air conditioning, ventilation and noise protection

Robots work continuously without experiencing fatigue or boredom, do not get mad, do not have hangovers and need medical insurance or vacation

Advantages & Disadvantages of Robots (cont)

Robots have repeatable precision at all times, unless something happens to them or unless wear out

Robots can be much more accurate than human. E.g. New wafer handling robots have micro inch accuracies
Accessories and sensor can have capabilities beyond humans Can process multiple stimuli or tasks simultaneously.

Advantages & Disadvantages of Robots (cont)

Robots replace human workers creating economic problems. E.g. lost salaries, social problems (dissatisfaction and resentment among workers) Robots lack capability to respond in emergencies, unless the situation is predicted and the response is included in the system. Safety measures are needed to ensure that they do not injured operators and machine working with them

Advantages & Disadvantages of Robots (cont)

This includes: Inappropriate or wring responses

A lack of decision making power

A loss of power Damage to the robot and other devices Human injuries

Advantages & Disadvantages of Robots (cont)

Robots have limited capabilities in Degree of freedom

Sensors Vision systems Real time response

Advantages & Disadvantages of Robots (cont)

Robots are costly due to Initial cost of equipment

Installation cost
Need of peripherals Need for training Need for programming

Robot Components
A Robot as a system consists of the following elements which are integrated together to form a whole: i. Manipulator (or rover)

ii. End effectors iii. Actuators iv. Sensors v. Controller

vi. Processor
vii. Software

Robot Components (cont)

Manipulator Is the main body of the robot and consists of links, the joints and other structural elements

End Effectors

The part that is connected to the last joint (hand) of a manipulator.

In most cases the action of the end effector is either controlled by the robots controller or the controller communicates with the end effectors controlling device such as (e.g. PLC)

Robot Components (cont)

Actuators Are the muscles of the manipulator that move or create mechanical action Common types Servomotors power driven mechanism that help main controller operates using low force Stepper motors a rotating motor in a small step and not continuous

Pneumatic cylinders relating to air or other gases

Hydraulic cylinders moved by, or operated by a fluid, especially water, under pressure.

Robot Components (cont)

Actuators (cont)


Robot Components (cont)

Actuators (cont)
Multiplication factor E.g Left piston = 2 inches in diameter (1-inch radius) Right piston = 6 inches in diameter (3-inch radius) Area = r2

Answer Area of the left piston = (1)2 = 3.14 Area of the right piston = 28.26.
The piston on the right is 9 times larger than the piston on the left. What that means is that any force applied to the left-hand piston will appear 9 times greater on the right-hand piston. So if you apply a 100-pound downward force to the left piston, a 900-pound upward force will appear on the right. The only catch is that you will have to depress the left piston 9 inches to raise the right 17 piston 1 inch.

Robot Components (cont)

Sensors Sensors are used to collect information about the internal state if the robot to communicate with outside environment E.g. Vision system, speech, and touch/tactile

Controller Similar to cerebellum (controls motions) Receive data from computer, control actuators motions and coordinates the motions with the sensory feedback information E.g. Controls angle, velocity, force

Robot Components (cont)

Processor The brain Generally a computer but dedicated to a single purpose E.g. Calculates motions, how much/fast joint must move

Software Three group of software

Operating system
Robotic software calculates necessary motions of each joint based on kinematics equations

Collection of routines and application programs to use peripheral devices (e.g. vision routines, specific 19 task)

Types of Robot Function & Application

Classification of Robot
Japanese Industrial Robot Association (JIRA) Class 1: Manual Handling Device: A device with multiple DOF that is actuated by an operator Class 2: Fixed-Sequence Robot: A device that performs the successive stages if a task according to predetermined, unchanging method and is hard to modify Class 3: VariableSequence Robot: Same as 2 but easy to modify Class 4: Playback Robot: A human operator performs the task manually and records the motions 20 for later playback. The robot repeats.

Types of Robot Function & Application

Classification of Robot (cont)
Japanese Industrial Robot Association (JIRA)
Class 5: Numerical Control Robot: The operator supplies the robot with a movement program rather than teaching them manually Class 6: Intelligent Robot: Robot with means to understand its environment and the ability to successfully complete a task despite changes in the surrounding.


Types of Robot Function & Application

Classification of Robot (cont)
Robotics Institute of America (RIA) only consider class 3-6 as robots The Association Francaise de Robotique (AFR) Type A: Handling devices with manual control to telerobotics Type B: Automatic handling devices predetermined cycles Type C: Programmable, servo controlled robot with continuous point-to-point trajectories Type D: Same as type C, but with the capability to acquire information from its environment

Types of Robot Function & Application

Robot Application
4D Application Dangerous Dirty Dull Difficult 4A tasks Automation Augmentation Assistance Autonomous


Degree of Freedom (DOF)

Six degree of freedom is needed to fully place the object in space and also oriented it as desired (move & rotate along x-, y- and z-axes) If fewer than six, the robots capabilities are limited E.g. Robot with three DOF can only move along x-, yand z-axes. No orientation can be specified (only parallel to axes) Robot with five DOF capable of rotating about three axes but only moving along x-, y-axes (not z-axes)

Degree of Freedom (DOF) (cont)

A system with seven degrees of freedom does not have unique solution. There are infinite number of ways it can position a part and orientate it at desired location. There must be additional decision making routine (for the controller) that allows it to pick the fastest or shortest path to the desired destination.

Due to this which take much computing power and time no seven DOF is used in industry
Human arms have seven DOF. (Shoulder 3 DOF, Elbow 1 DOF, wrist - 3 DOF) In robot end effectors never consider as on of DOF DOF - if movement is not fully controlled (e.g only can fully extended or retracted, can only at 0, 30, 60 or 25 90 degrees)

Robot Coordinates
Robot configurations for positioning the hand are as follows: Cartesian/rectangular/gantry (3P) Cylindrical (R2P) Spherical (2RP) Articulated/anthropomorphic (3R) Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm (SCARA) R = Revolute, S = Spherical

P = Prismatic (linear),

Robot Coordinates (cont)


Robot Workspace
Robot workspace is the ability of a robot to reach a collection of points (workspace) which depends on the configuration and size of their links and wrist joint.
The workspace may be found mathematically by writing equations that define the robots links and joints including their limitations, such as ranges of motions for each joint Alternatively can be found by subtracting all the space it can reach with what it cannot reach.


Robot Workspace (cont)


Arm Configuration
A Point for a Cartesian-coordinates Robot


Arm Configuration (cont)

A Point for a Cylindrical-coordinates Robot


Arm Configuration (cont)

A Point for a Cylindrical-coordinates Robot (cont)


Arm Configuration (cont)

A Point for a SCARA Robot


Arm Configuration (cont)

A Point for a SCARA Robot (cont)


Arm Configuration (cont)

A Point for a Polar-coordinates Robot


Arm Configuration (cont)

A Point for a Polar-coordinates Robot (cont)


Arm Configuration (cont)

A Point for a Jointed-arm Robot


Arm Configuration (cont)

A Point for a Jointed-arm Robot (cont)