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Module IV:

Organizational Change

A Presentation by

Mr. Indranil Mutsuddi

What is Organizational Change

Organizational change is the process by which

organizations move from their present state to
desired state to increase their effectiveness
Characteristics of Organizational
 Change is vital so as to avoid stagnation.
 Change is a process not an event
 Change is normal & constant
 Change is fast & likely to increase further in the present
competitive business
 Change is both directive as well as participative
 It is incremental
 It is an interdependent function
Change Management



People Mgt & Orgn.

Corporate Culture
Levels of Change

 Individual-level Changes:
 Changes in Job assignments
 Relocation
 Internal Mobility
 Job enrichment, Job Enlargement, Job Rotation
 Job Re-designing, Job-structuring
 Skill/Competency Development
 Changes in behavior, attitudes
 Performance enhancement
Levels of Change

 Group Level Changes:

 Work flow changes
 Job designs
 Social organization
 Changes in influence (authority) & Status systems
 Changes in communication & networking patterns
 Organization of groups (formal/informal)
 Team Building
Levels of Change

 Organizational Level Changes:

 Structure
 Process
 Systems
 Strategic Perspective
 Policy level changes
 Organization Development
Types of Change

Systems Processes

Change through

Management People

Components of Re-engineering

Business processes Mgt & Evaluation


Values & beliefs Jobs & Structures

Reasons for changes

 External Causes:
 Globalization
 Workforce Diversity
 Technological Change
 Managing ethical behavior
 Govt. Policies
 Competition
 Scarcity of resources
Reasons for changes

 Internal causes:
 Organizational stagnation
 Decreasing performance effectiveness
 Crisis
 Changing employee expectations
 Change in the work climate
Resistance of Change
Organizational level: Group-level:

• Structure • Composition
• Culture • Group Norms
• Strategy • Cohesiveness
• Over-determination • Groupthink

Individual level:

• Cognitive Biases
Sub-unit-level: • Uncertainty
• Fear of Loss
• Differences in orientation • Selective participation
• Power & Conflict • habit
• Logical Reasoning
Models of Change

Lewin’s Change Model

Unfreezing Moving Refreezing

Reducing the Developing Reinforcing

Forces for New attitudes, New values
Status quo Values & Attitudes &
Behaviors behaviors
Models of Change
Resistance to Change Resistance to Change
Level of Performance

New Status Quo


Status Quo

Forces for Change Forces for Change

Lewin’s Force Field Model of Change
The Change Process
 Becoming aware of the pressure for change
 Recognizing the need for change
 Diagnosing the problem
 Planning the change
 Implementing the change
 Managing Resistance to the change
 Following-up the change
Organizational Development
 OD comprises a special set of organizational change
 It is a planned, systematic process of organizational change
based on the behavioral science, research & theory.

Goal of OD:

 The goal of OD is to create adaptive organizations capable of

transforming & reinvesting themselves, so as to remain
Characteristics of OD

 Planned change
 Comprehensive change
 Emphasis on work groups/teams
 Long-term change process
 Participation of a change agent/facilitator
 Emphasis on intervention
 Collaborative management
 Organizational Culture
 Action Research
Pre-requisites of OD

 Perceptions of Organizational problems by key people

 Introduction of a change agent/facilitator
 Top management commitment
 Participation & commitment of work teams & leaders
 Operationalizing of Action Research
 Earlier success stemming ways for future successes
 An open, educational philosophy about the theory &
technology of OD
Pre-requisites of OD

 Acknowledgement of the congruency between OD & many

previous effective management practices.
 Involvement of personnel & IR, as well as HR executives
in the OD process
 Development of internal OD resources & facilitative skills
 Effective management of OD process & stabilization of
 Monitoring the OD process & assessing the results on an
on-going basis.
Situations appropriate for OD

 Organization’s managerial strategy (norms, values, power

structures etc)
 Organizational culture
 Inter-group collaborations
 Organizational structure; Organizational roles
 Motivational levels of employees
 Trust & support among organizational members
 Synergistic solutions to problems
Action Research

 A primary change process used in most OD programs

 It’s a data based, problem-solving process of organizational

Advantages of Action Research:

 Careful diagnosis of the current situation

 Involvement of the employees in the change process
Steps of Action Research

 Gathering information about problems, concerns &

needed changes from organizational members
 Organizing this information in some meaningful way &
sharing the same with the team involved in the change
 Planning & carrying out specific actions to correct
identified problems.