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Introduction to

The al-Quran
( The Main Sources Of Islam )
Madah Talim

Agus Syihabudin

True piety is this: to believe in God, and the Last Day, the angels, the Book, and the Prophets, to give of ones substance, however cherished, to kinsmen, and orphans, the needy, the traveler, beggars, and to ransom the slave, to perform the prayer, to pay the alms. (Surat al-Baqara, 177)

Linguistic Meaning
Quran root word is QARAA meaning read or recite. Hence, Quran means the reading or the recitation
And (it is) a Quran which We have divided (into parts), in order that you might recite it to men at intervals 17:106

Islamic Meaning
The Quran is the Arabic Speech of Allah, which He revealed to Prophet Muhammad in wording and meaning, and has been preserved in the mushafs, and has reached us by mutawaatir transmission, and is a challenge to mankind to produce something similar to it.

Names of the Quran

Quran (recitation) mentioned 73 times 17:88
Kitab (book) mentioned 77 times (2:1-2) Furqan (Criterion) 4 times Dhikr (Reminder) mentioned 55 times Tanzeel (Revelation) over 140 times

The Beginning of Revelation

Proclaim! (or Read!) In the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, Who created Created man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood: Proclaim! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful He who taught (the use of) the pen Taught man that which he knew not. (Surat al-Alaq, 1-5)

The unmediated word of God

114 chapters 6207 verses 77,934 words 323,671 letters

revealed over 22 years (22 y, 2 m and 22 d) Not arranged in the order in which it was revealed Traditionally thought to have been collected under Uthman (d. 656), third caliph Todays text based on the 1925 Egyptian edition

Compilation of the Quran


compilation by Abu Bakr in 12 AH after the Battle of Yamaamah

compilation by Uthman 24-25 AH


The Oldest Quranic Manuscripts

Content of the al-Quran

Main themes:

Creed or matters of Belief (Aqeedah) Stories and History Laws


material of the Quran is contained in about 500 Ayats

Meccan-Madinan Phases

part of the Quran was revealed in Mecca - mostly deal with beliefs, disputation with unbelievers and their invitation to Islam
surahs deal with legal rules regarding family, society, politics, economics, etc.


Inimitability Of the Quran

The Quran is considered the Greatest miracles
And if you are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down to Our slave, then produce a chapter of the like thereof and call your witnesses (supporters and helpers) besides Allah, if you are truthful.

Five verses: 2:23-24,10:38,11:13,17:88 52:33-34


1. Bahasa Arab yang indah dan menakjubkan 2. Menceritakan sejarah dan menggambarakan prediksi kehidupan secara akurat 3. Isyarat IPTEK yang sejalan dengan penemuan mutakhir 4. Membawa ajaran kehidupan yang benar, adil dan menjamin kedamaian hidup 5. Diturunkan kepada seorang Nabi yang Ummi 6. Proses penurunan dalam skala waktu lama yang menjamin mudah terdeteksinya kepalsuan jika ia bikinan manusia 7. Mendapatkan garansi pemeliharaan Allah SWT




Suatu hukum mewarisi karakteristik pembuatnya - Karakter manusia itu lemah (tidak sempurna) - Klaim kekelanan Qanun bertentangan dengan fitrah si pembuatnya 2. Suatu hukum dibuat berdasarkan kebutuhan - Kebutuhan manusia bersifat dinamis (berubah) - Qanun harus berubah seiring dengan dinamika 3. Suatu hukum dibuat untuk mengatur hidup supaya tertib


1. TAQLIL AL TAKALIF (QS. 7:157) 2. ADAM AL HARJ - Menggugurkan suatu kewajiban - Mengurangkan - Mendahulukan - Membelakangkan - Mengganti - Mengubah Cara - Rukhshah 3. AL TADARRUJ FI AL TASYRI;

A Gradual Revelation
Wisdom behind gradual revelation 1. To strengthen resolve 25:32
2. To simplify memorization and understanding 3.) To prove the truthfulness of the Prophet 25:33

4.) To prove the miraculous nature of the Quran 4:82

5.) To reveal the laws of Islam

Preservation of the Quran

Verily, We have revealed the Reminder, and verily We shall preserve it. (15:9)

Compilation of Quran
Why wasnt it compiled during the life of the Prophet?

The Quran was written down in totality but the Prophet didnt order that it be compiled between two covers No pressing need Quran continued to be revealedlast verse nine days before death Quran not in chronological order

Memorization of Quran
And We have indeed made the Quran easy to understand and remember, then is there any one who will remember (or receive admonition)? (54:17) It will be said to the companion of the Quran: Recite and rise in status, recite as you used to recite in the world, for your status will be at the last verse that you recite. (Abu Dawood)

Memorization of Quran
The Prophet said: Learn the Quran, preserve it, and recite it in a beautiful, musical manner, because it is swifter in escaping (from your memory) than the camels are from their hobbles. [Musnad Ahmad]

Sciences of the Quran

Asbab al-Nuzul
(Occasion of Revelation)

al-Nuzul or events which are related to revelation of the Ayats Hukm (law) is not limited to the events or circumstances. Asbab al-Nuzul helps to understand the Quran and its law.

Sciences of the quran Benefit of Knowing Occasion of Revelation

To understand the circumstances in which a verse was revealed To apply verses in a proper manner To know the person who caused the revelation

Sciences of the quran

Abrogation (al Naskh) And when We change a Verse in place of another, and Allah knows best what He sends down, they (the disbelievers) say: "You are but a forger/ liar)." 16:101 Example: Ruling on Alcohol 2:219 (harmful), dont pray drunk (4:43), prohibited (5:90)

Sciences of the quran

Abrogation (al-Naskh)

Benefits of this knowledge Understand and implement Quran properly Knowledge of gradual revelation of shariah Defense of Quran and Sunnah

Sciences of the quran Recitation

Tajweed: Science of the recitation of the Quran Ten different recitation of the Quran
Young boy Indonesian American Kuwaiti Saudi Egyptian

Sciences of the quran

Exegeses (al-Tafsir)
The process of understanding Quranic texts. 1) Tafsir bil matsur based on reports deriving from the Quran, the Prophet, the Companions 2) Tafsir bir rayi based on ijtihad (reasoning)

Hermeneutics discourse of contemporary exegetes: The Quran is not to be treated as a dead text, but as a living text with spirit for transformation.

Virtue of the Quran

The best of you is he who learns

the Quran and teaches it to others (Bukhari)

I have certainly left among you

two matters, that if you adhere to them, you will never be misguided: the book of Allah and the Sunnah of His prophet (Malik)

Virtue of Quran
And if there had been a Quran with which mountains could be moved (from their places), or the earth could be cloven asunder, or the dead could be made to speak (it would not have been other than this Quran). But the decision of all things is certainly with Allah. Have not then those who believed yet known that had Allah willed, He could have guided all mankind? 13:31

The neglect of the Quran


30 Avoiding listening to its recitation, beliving in it or paying attention to it Avoiding acting by and respecting what the Quran states as halal and Haram Avoiding accepting the Quran as an arbiter Avoiding pondering over it Avoiding using it as a cure for the diseases of the heart

Reaction to the Quran

Embraced Islam Listening to it secretly themselves Claimed it was magic (Story of Waleed p.269)

Normative Basis of Shariah:

Maqashid Shariah (Overall Goal) Imam Shatiby

Basic human rights in Islam Al Kulliyatul Khoms

Right for protection of ones faith Right for protection of ones life Right for freedom of thoughts Right for protection of ones property Right for protection of progeny

God loves to see that His concessions are taken advantage of, just as He hates to see the commission of a sin. (Hadith)
Fulfill your duties to the extent of your ability. (Hadith)