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WiMax Technology

Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access.

Provides wireless data over long distance

Based on the WirelessMAN (IEEE 802.16) standard.

WiMAX is an IEEE 802.16 specific connection-oriented

technology, designed to deliver high broadband speeds

over wireless at lower costs.
WiMAX is a highly scalable, long-range system.
WiMAX provide high-speed data bandwidth up 70Mbps

and telecommunications services.

 WiMAX device using with directional antennas,
speeds of 10 Mbit/s at 10 km distance is possible,
 WiMAX devices with omni-directional antennas 10
Mbit/s over 2 km is possible.
 WiMAX can provide broadband wireless
access (BWA) up to 30 miles (50 km) for
fixed stations, and 3 - 10 miles (5 - 15 km) for
mobile stations.
 WiMAX operates on both licensed and non-
licensed frequencies.
 Useful in areas where cable, DSL broadband
and even dial-up might not exist.
WiMAX Standard (IEEE 802.16)

•IEEE 802.16 group was formed in 1998

• IEEE 802.16 (Dec’01)
Single carrier PHY layer and TDM MAC layer
• IEEE 802.16a (Jan’03)
Include NLOS application
OFDM PHY layer and OFDMA MAC layer
• IEEE 802.16d (June’04)
“Fixed WiMAX”
Combine previous versions
• IEEE 802.16e (Dec’05)
“Mobile WiMAX”
Add mobility support
Scalable OFDM PHY layer and Scalable OFDMA MAC layer
Types of WiMAX
 WiMAX has the potential to replace a
number of existing telecommunications
infrastructures. In a fixed wireless
configuration it can replace the telephone
company's copper wire networks, the
cable TV's coaxial cable infrastructure
while offering Internet Service Provider
(ISP) services. In its mobile variant,
WiMAX has the potential to replace
cellular networks.

 IEEE standard designated 802.16-2004

(fixed wireless applications) and
802.16e-2005 (mobile wire-less).

 WiMAX as a "last mile" broadband

wireless access (BWA) alternative to
cable modem service, telephone
company Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
or T1/E1 service.
Types of WiMAX
 Fixed WiMAX
Fixed WiMAX
 WiMAX provides fixed, portable or mobile non-line-of sight
service from a base station to a subscriber station, also known
as customer premise equipment (CPE). Some goals for WiMAX
include a radius of service coverage of 6 miles from a WiMAX
base station for point-to-multipoint, non-line-of-sight.This service
should deliver approximately 40 megabits per second (Mbps) for
fixed and portable access applications. That WiMAX cell site
should offer enough bandwidth to support hundreds of
businesses with T1 speeds and thousands of residential
customers with the equivalent of DSL services from one base
Type of WiMAX
 Mobile WiMAX
Mobile WiMAX
 Mobile WiMAX takes the fixed wireless application a step further
and enables cell phone-like applications on a much larger scale.
For example, mobile WiMAX enables streaming video to be
broadcast from a speeding police or other emergency vehicle at
over 70 MPH. It potentially replaces cell phones and mobile data
offerings from cell phone operators such as EvDo, EvDv and
HSDPA. In addition it offers superior building penetration and
improved security measures over fixed WiMAX. Mobile WiMAX
will be very valuable for emerging services such as mobile TV
and gaming.
WiMAX is not a Wi Fi
Comparison of WiMAX with
 WiMAX uses licensed spectrum to deliver a point-to-point connection to
the Internet from an ISP to an end user. Different 802.16 standards
provide different types of access. WiMax is developed primarily for
wireless metropolitan area networks (WMANs), with rang of few
 Wi-Fi uses unlicensed spectrum to provide access to a network. Wi-Fi
has primarily been developed for wireless local area networks (WLANs),
with a range of up to 100m.
 WiMAX and Wi-Fi have quite different Quality of Service (QoS)
mechanisms. WiMAX uses a mechanism based on connections
between the Base Station and the user device. Each connection is
based on specific scheduling algorithms.
 Wi-Fi has introduced a QoS mechanism similar to fixed Ethernet, where
packets can receive different priorities based on their tags.
 Wi-Fi runs on the MAC's CSMA/CA protocol, which is connectionless
and contention based.
 whereas WiMAX runs a connection-oriented MAC.
 an architecture that defines how a
WiMAX network connects with other
 SS/MS: the Subscriber
Station/Mobile Station
 ASN: the Access Service Network[8]
 BS: Base station, part of the ASN
 ASN-GW: the ASN Gateway, part of
the ASN
 CSN: the Connectivity Service
 HA: Home Agent, part of the CSN
 AAA: AAA Server, part of the CSN
 NAP: a Network Access Provider
 NSP: a Network Service Provider
How WiMAX Works?
 WiMAX is a connection-oriented technology and affects only the
Physical Layer and the MAC portion in the Data Link Layer of the OSI
Model. Therefore the 802.16 specification mainly describes the
scheduling of communication between towers and WiMAX devices.
 WiMAX supports two types of connection types.
 Frequency Division Duplexing(FDD) .
one frequency is sent from the base tower to another station tower and
from the station tower to the base tower.
 Time Division Duplexing(TDD).
The base tower transmits at one frequency to a station tower and
receives data from the station tower at another frequency.

Ultimately, WiMAX can be envisioned as a mesh network where each

node(tower/access points) can communicate with each other in order to
extend the range of WiMAX and, therefore, allows robust
communication as there are multiple routes a signal can take.
WiMAX deployment types
 To overcome the challenges
of traditional Wired access
deployment types such as:

 Backhaul
- point-to-point
 Last-mile
- point-to-multipoint
 Large area coverage
- Uses base stations,
subscriber stations and Wi-
Fi(mesh) solutions for large
area coverage.
WiMAX Deployment
Implementation in Pakistan

 Wateen Telecom, set to launch fixed-wireless

services in Pakistan.
 Biggest WiMax network rollout to date
covering more than 17 major cities in
Pakistan, including, Islamabad, Karachi and
Components of WiMAX
 Base Station.
 Antinna (Tower for communication).
 Client (with WiMAX enabled).
 WiMAX Backhaul
 CPE devices
 WiMAX Access Points
Base station
WiMAX Base Station StarMAX 6400

•Powerful, Modular Blade Architecture

•Enhanced Features for Superior

Coverage and Throughput

•Carrier Class Reliability

•TRUFLE™ Mobility Manger
•Wide Range of Frequencies

 - Omni Directional
 - 90 Degrees Panel
 - 60 Degrees Panel


Client with wiMAX
 Notebooks(Laptops)
 Pc’s with WiMAX
 Mobiles
WiMAX Backhaul
 WiMAX Backhaul is the transport link between a
Base Station (BS) and the WiMAX Access Service
Network Gateway (ASN-GW).
 Defined as Network components which connect
client/subscriber access sections of networks with
their core switching and management topologies.
 Backhaul essentially acts as the “glue” that pieces
all of the network elements together.
 This enables the network to deliver seamless and
transparent broadband communications, effortlessly,
and with high reliability and availability.
 Wimax backhaul
equipment allows your
wireless traffic to easily
be bounced from place
to place according to
your needs.
CPE Devices
 Customer Premise Equipment (CPE)
 CPE generally refers to telephones, DSL modems or cable
modems, or purchased set-top boxes for use with
Communications Service Providers services.
 Compact devices that bridge Long-Reach Ethernet (LRE) and
Ethernet traffic.
 Support Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) traffic, including
digital phones, that co-exists over the same LRE line.
 Axxcelera’s ExcelMax Indoor CPE is a low cost, self-installable,
Point to Multipoint (PMP).
 CPE designed to operate in the 3.3-3.8 GHz.
CPE Devices
Key Features
 Enhanced NLOS Features: Uplink
Subchannelization; Space Time Coding
 Self Install, Self Configure Indoor CPE
 Half-Duplex FDD and TDD support
 Supports data, voice and video services
 Comprehensive Quality of Service (CIR,
PIR, Priority) and VLAN support
 Low cost CPE allows mass residential
 Self Install feature avoids cost of
professional installation
 Robust, field proven platform
WiMAX Access point

 These are optional some where but are used

mainly when you have more than 3-4
wireless gadgets requiring to access Wi-Max
network. Say in your home if you have 4
laptops who want to connect to internet , use
access point simple.
Benefits of WiMAX
 Long Range. (up to 30 miles.)

Low cost. ($20,000 but will still provide customers with T1-class connections.)
 Wireless.
 High Bandwidth. (up to 70 Mb/s)
 Services.
-Non Line-of-sight
Operates at 2 to 11 GHz. A small antenna on a computer connects
to the tower and is backwards compatible.
66 GHz. Signal is stronger and more stable. A fixed dish antenna
for communication between tower to tower.
DrawBacks of WiMAX
 Hesitancy
Companies are very hesitant of setting up WiMAX base stations. One solution to
this problem is Intel making their Centrino laptop processors WiMAX enabled
within the next few years. All laptops are expected to have WiMAX by 2008.
 Exclusion of Start-Up Companies.
Even though cost provides a low barrier to entry, none of the startup companies
are projected to be major players in the development of WiMAX.(only intel and
cisco took advantage)
 Research and Development
In order for WiMAX to succeed, new products must be researched and
developed to incorporate WiMAX.
Future of WiMAX
 As IT industry and countries are recognizing the
potential of Wi-Max, the technology has promising
future both in terms of cost effectiveness and
benefits to consumers.
 There are few issues still to be resolved like
spectrum allocation (as signals have no country
 Wi-Max also needs to be combined with
technologies like Wi-Fi, bluetooth and others.
 Let us hope it gives the best to us.
Future of WiMAX
 The primary wireless application on mobile systems
today is voice. But in five years, people will be using
their computers with the same freedom they now
have for cell phones.
 High-quality cameras will have built-in WiMAX and
other wireless capabilities with ubiquitous coverage
as will game consoles and music players.
 More serious applications like medical monitoring
and diagnostics usable by ordinary people because
the delivery cost will be so low.