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COR E NETWORK (NSS)

UTRAN ARCHITECTURE

ACCESS TECHNOLOGY - UMTS


WCDMA FDD The whole spectrum shared by all users and cells Frequency Division Duplex Different band for uplink and downlink BSNL Uplink : 1964MHz 1969 MHz Downlink : 2154 2159 UARFCN : 10782

DS-SS communication system


A technology of transmission after spreading signal spectrum.
Wideband Signal

Slow Information Sent

Slow Information Recovered

TX

RX

Fast Spreading Sequence

Fast Spreading Sequence

Sketch map of Spreading and Despreading


Symbol Data=010010
Chip 1 -1

Spreading code = 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 ( SF = 8 ) Spread signal = Data code

Spreading
1 -1 1 -1

Despreading Spreading code

1 -1 1 -1

Data = Spread signal Spreading code

Spread Spectrum Principles

Many code channels are individually spread and then added together to create a composite signal

Spread Spectrum Principles


Any Code Channel can be extracted from the received composite signal by using the right orthogonal code Energy for transmitting signal can be lower than interference and noise

Processing Gain
Broadband Interference Unwanted Power from Other Resoures

Principle of Channel Coding


Channel coding
Error-correcting ability obtains by adding redundancy in the original data Convolutional coding and Turbo coding 1/21/3 are widely applied. Increase noneffective load and transmission time Suitable to correct few non-continuous errors
WCDMA
TURBO W W C C D D M M AA T T UURRBBOO W ? C C D D M M AA T T

S P E A K Encoding S S P P E E A A K K
Decoding

URRBBOO

S S PPEE A? KK

Encoding and Interleaving


WCDMA TURBO SPEAK W W C C D D M MAA Encoding T T UURRBBOO S S PPE EAAK K WTSWTS
Interleaving C U P C U P

DREDRE MBAMBA AOKAOK

Encoding + Interleaving can correct both continuous and non-continuous errors

WTS???
Decoding

W??CDDMMA? T ? ?UR??BOO S ? ? P? EAAK K

Deinterleaving ? ? ? C U P

DR?D?E M?AMBA AOK?OK

WCDMA Data transmission Procedure


UE Data Encoding & Interleaving Baseband modulation Spreading Modulation

RF Transmitting

Despreading

Demodulation

RF Receiving

Baseband demodulation

Decoding & De-inteleaving

UE Data

Spreading Process of WCDMA


Symbol Chip

Data
3.84Mcps 3.84Mcps

Spread Data

OVSF Code

Scrambling Code

Symbol rate SF = Chip rate=3.84Mcps


For WCDMASF of uplink channelization code4~256

SF of downlink channelization code: 4~512


OVSF: Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor

Code Functions
Channelization code ---- for separation of physical channels in the uplink and separation of users in the downlink Scrambling code ---- for separation of users/terminals in the uplink and cells/sectors in the downlink.

Channelization Code
Adopt OVSF code
Definition: Cch,SF,k, describe channelization code, where SF : spread factor k : code number, 0 < k<SF-1
C ch,4,0 =(1,1,1,1)
C ch,2,0 = (1,1) C ch,4,1 = (1,1, -1, - 1)

C ch,1,0 = (1)
C ch,4,2 = (1, - 1 ,1, - 1) C ch,2,1 = (1,-1) C ch,4,3 = (1, - 1, - 1, 1) SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4

Characteristic of Scrambling code


There are 224 Uplink Scrambling Codes, they are used to distinguish different users in one cell. There are 218-1 Downlink Scrambling Codes, used to distinguish different cells
Scrambling codes usually used are the first 8192 codes, which are code 018191. They are divided into 512 aggregationseach aggregation has 1 primary scrambling code (PSC) and 15 secondary scrambling codes (SSC). The 512 primary scrambling codes are divided further into 64 primary scrambling code groups , with 8 primary scrambling codes in each group.

Numbering rule for Downlink Scrambling Codes


2 -1 Downlink Scrambling Codes in all (0..262142) No.63 Primary Scrambling Code Group
18

No. 511 Scrambling Code No.0 Primary Scrambling Code Group Group No. 7 Scrambling Code No. 510 Scrambling Code 8176 PSC Group Group 8177SSC No. 1 Scrambling Code 504 Scrambling Code 112 8176 PSC 8160No. 8160 Group Group No. 0 Scrambling Code 113 8177 8191 8191 SSC 8161 8161 Group 16 16 PSC 8064 8064 127 8191 17 17SSC 81758065 81758065 0 0PSC 1 1SSC 31 31SSC 8079 8079 15 15SSC 8176 8177

Modulation Methods in WCDMA


BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying) in Uplink channles QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) in Downlink channels 16QAM (16-state Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) in HSDPA

SOME QUALITY PARAMETERS

RSSI Total Power over the 5MHZ spectrum RSCP Power of a single code in the 5MHZ spectrum Ec/No - RSCP in dBm RSSI in dBm or Ec/No = RSCP/RSSI always ve. Useful upto -15dB. CQI Channel Quality Indicator-UE communicates its ability of transfer rate depending on quality of channel Eb/No Ratio of bit energy to Noise (After dispreading)Always positive. Throughput rate of data transfer RLC Throughput throughput over physical channel LLC Throughput Throughput over logical channel Application Throughput Actual Throughput the user feels

UMTS Key Technologies


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Power Control
CDMA is not a new technology Power control is a key technology of CDMA system Power control is the key path for launching the large scale CDMA commercial network
CDMA is a typical self-interference system, thus the chief principle is that any potential surplus transmitted power for service must be controlled.

The Effect of Power Control


The purpose of DL power control:
Saving power resource of NodeB. Reducing interference to other NodeB.

The purpose of UL power control:


Overcoming Near-Far effect. Extending UE battery life.

WCDMA system capacity depends on the effect of power control

Whats

When UE is moving from the coverage area of one site to another, or the quality of service is declined by external interference during a service, the service must be handed over to an idle channel for sustaining the service. Handover is used to guarantee the continuity of service

Handover is a key technology for mobile networking

Category of Handover
Soft handover (SHO)

Intra-RNC, inter-Node B Inter-RNC

WCDMA system support

multiple handover technology

Softer handover

Same Node B, Inter-sector

Hard handover (HHO)

Intra-frequency Inter-frequency Inter-system (3G&2G) Inter-mode (FDD&TDD)

Measurement Control Handover decision

WCDMA General Handover Procedures ---- Handover Trilogy

UTRAN demands the UE to start measurement through issuing a measurement control message.
UTRAN makes the decision based on the measurement reports from UE. The implementation of handover decision is various for different vendors. It impacts on the system performance critically.

Handover execution
UTRAN and UE execute different handover procedure according to the handover command .

General Procedure of Handover Control (III)


Handover algorithm
All the handover algorithms including soft handover, hard handover and so on are implemented on the event decision made according to the measurement reports.

Events defined in 3GPP specifications


Intra-frequency events1A~1F Inter-frequency events2A~2F Inter-RAT events3A~3D
Note: RAT is short for Radio Access Technology, e.g. WCDMA&GSM

Concepts Related to Handover


Active Set:
A set of cells that have established radio links with a certain mobile station. User information is sent from all these cells.

Monitored Set:
A set of cells that are not in the active set but are monitored according to the list of adjacent cells assigned by the UTRAN.

Detected Set:
A set of cells that are neither in the active set nor in the monitor set.

Soft handover events


Event Description
Quality of target cell improves, entering a report range of relatively activating set quality Quality of target cell decreases, depart from a report range of relatively activating set quality The quality of a non-activated set cell is better than that of a certain activated set cell Best cell generates change Quality of target cell improves, better than an absolute threshold Quality of target cell decreases, worse than an absolute threshold

1A
1B 1C 1D 1E

1F

Limitations of UMTS Interference Code congestion Power Congestion Processor(Channel Elements) limitations

UMTS Radio Channel


ZTE University

Channel Type
Physical channel Transport channel Logical channel
UE
Node B

RNC

Logical channel Transport channel Physical channel

Logical Channels
Control Channel (CCH)
Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) Paging Control Channel (PCCH) Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) Common Control Channel (CCCH)

Traffic Channel (TCH)

Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) Common Traffic Channel (CTCH)

Transport Channel
Common Transport Channels Broadcast Channel (BCH) Paging Channel (PCH) Random Access Channel (RACH) Forward Access Channel (FACH) Common Packet Channel (CPCH) Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH) Dedicated Transport Channels Dedicated Channel (DCH)

Physical Channel
Uplink Physical Channels Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH) Dedicated Physical Channel (DPCH) Downlink Physical Channels Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH) Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH) Synchronization Channel (SCH) Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) Acquisition Indication Channel (AICH)

Page Indication Channel (PICH)


Dedicated Physical Channel (DPCH)

Mapping relationship
Transport Channels
DCH

Physical Channels
Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH) Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH)

RACH CPCH

Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH) Common Pilot Channel (CPICH)

BCH FACH PCH

Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH) Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH)

Synchronization Channel (SCH) DSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) Acquisition Indication Channel (AICH) Page Indication Channel (PICH)

Cell Search
UE has to get the system information before it registers with the network and access to services. The system information is beared in the BCH channel, and its data is mapped into the Primary CCPCH. So the cell search procedure is mainly to decode the data of P-CCPCH.

Cell search procedure (1)


The cell search is typically carried out in three steps: Step1: Slot synchronization
During the first step of the cell search procedure the UE uses the SCH channel's primary synchronization code to acquire slot synchronization to a cell. This is typically done with a single matched filter (or any similar device) matched to the primary synchronization code which is common to all cells. The slot timing of the cell can be obtained by detecting peaks in the matched filter output.

Cell search procedure (2)


Step2: Frame synchronization and code-group identification
During the second step of the cell search procedure, the UE uses the SCH channel's secondary synchronization code to find frame synchronization and identify the code group of the cell found in the first step. This is done by correlating the received signal with all possible secondary synchronization code sequences, and identifying the maximum correlation value. Since the cyclic shifts of the sequences are unique the code group as well as the frame synchronization is determined.

Cell search procedure (3)


Step3: Scrambling-code identification
During the third and last step of the cell search procedure, the UE determines the exact primary scrambling code used by the cell. The primary scrambling code is typically identified through symbol-by-symbol correlation over the CPICH with all codes within the code group identified in the second step.

After the primary scrambling code has been identified, the Primary CCPCH can be detected so that the cell specific BCH information can be read.

RACH procedure
UE decodes BCH to find out the available RACH sub-channels and their scrambling codes and signatures It selects randomly one of the available sub-channels and signatures The downlink power is measured and the initial RACH power level is set with a proper margin due to open loop inaccuracy UE transmits 1 ms long preamble with the selected signature Node B replies by repeating the preamble using Acquisition Indication Channel (AICH) UE decodes AICH message to see whether the NodeB has detected the preamble
If AICH is not detected, the preamble is resend with 1 dB higher transmit power If AICH is detected, a 10 or 20 ms long message part is transmitted with the same power as the last preamble