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most basic unit of life can become organism by themselves can function as part of a larger organism have different unique structure and function

Cell membrane or Plasma membrane

outer boundary of the cell very thin and fragile performs numerous functions: acts as a physical barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the surrounding extracellular fluid it controls the entry of ions and nutrients, elimination of wastes, and release of secretory products it contains a variety of receptors that allow the cell to recognize and respond to specific molecules in its environment.

Endoplasmic Reticulum
intracellular membranes joined
by the membranous nuclear envelope surrounding the nucleus Functions are:

Production of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates Stores molecules or materials absorbed from cytosol that affect cellular operations Acts as a transport so materials can travel from place to place in the cell

There are two kinds of endoplasmic reticulum (ER):

Rough ER Smooth ER


short cylindrical structures perpendicular to each other creates the spindle fibers that move DNA strands during cell division


double-membrane, oval or rod-shaped organelles Function is to control the effect that provides energy for the cell. called the powerhouse of the cell

Golgi Apparatus

contains several sets of flat membranous layers Functions are: productions and packaging of secretions such as enzymes renewal or transformation of the cell membrane packaging of special enzymes in the cytosol


single-membrane oval within the cytoplasm it performs cleanup and recycling within the cell functions in the defense against disease and removes damaged or dead cells called suicide bags


most vital organelle brain for the cells metabolic activity and cell division spherical shape floats inside the cytoplasm surrounded by a doublelayered nuclear membrane contains the DNA which is the genetic code that manages the production of proteins called the control center of the cell

Cell Biology Self Test:






_____ are the most basic unit of life. Answer: Cells _____ is outer boundary of the cell. Answer: Cell Membrane _____ called the powerhouse of the cell. Answer: Mitochondria _____ called suicide bags of the cell. Answer: Lysosomes _____ called control center of the cell. Answer: Nucleus