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Myth as an Entry Point to Strengthen The Creed

(Literary Criticism)

By: Nur Asiyah, M.A


Human being needs spiritualism because the soul will look for satisfaction as the hungry body that needs food to be eaten.

Micheal Wolfe,


The religion I wanted should be to metaphysics as metaphysics is to science. It would not be confined by a narrow rationalism or traffic in mystery to please its priests. There would be no priests, no separation between nature and things sacred. There would be no war with the flesh, if I could help it.. Finally, I did want a ritual component, daily routine to sharpen the senses and discipline my mind. Above all, I wanted clarity and freedom. I did not want to trade away reason simply to be saddled with a dogma. The more I learned about Islam, the more it appeared to conform to what I was after.
Wolfe, Michael. 1993 Haji Kesaksian seorang mualaf . Jakarta: Serambi. p.24


The Creed is the basic need to build the good character Students character building

Literary Criticism
Myth Criticism

Problems Statement
How is myth described in Native American song? And why is it significant in Native American song?

What is the impact of myth toward Native American?


Adventure Romance Fantasy Science Fiction Children Literature Chick Lit v.s Dick Lit Teen Lit

High Literature
Play Prose Poetry

Literary Theory Carl Jung The Archetype of Myth Claude Levi Strauss The structural study of Myth American Studies Theory Henry Nash Smith Myth And symbol Scholar

Henry Nash Smith Myth And symbol Scholar He believed that an analysis of

given work of art can explain the nature of the society at that time.
To Explain the Myth and symbol found in the literary work

Carl Jung
Primordial Images, Collective unconscious (of the human race and are expressed in myths, religion, dreams, and private fantasies, as well as in the works of literature)
The exploration of myth finds new dimension. It is filled with archetype: symbolic figure.. Jung attributes to myth a social function: providing a guide for behavior (Segal 79)

Levi Strauss
There is no end to the number of meanings which can be read into a good myth (62-63) the particular artistic structure of a particular set of myths from their general of purely formal structure (64)
(Douglas, 1967. The Structural Study of Myth and Totemism, E. R. Leach (ed). London:Tavistock

Roland Barthes (used in Linguistics)

Myth As type of speech Myth is a system of communication that is message

Myth As a semiological system Tri - dimensional pattern: the signifier, signified and the sign Myth As stolen language To transform a meaning into form
Barthes, Roland . 1972. Mythologies. Hill and Wang: New York p. 109 -136

Chief Seattle Speech

My ancestors said to me, This we know: The earth does not belong to us. We belong to the earth. All things are connected like the blood that unites us. We did not weave the web of life, we are merely a strand in it. Whatever we do to the web, we do to ourselves.

Each literary works teaches The values E. g: Chief Seattle speech:

My mother told me, Every part of this earth is sacred to our people. Every pine needle. Every sandy shore. Every mist in the dark woods. Every meadow and humming insect. All are holy in the memory of our people. We are part of the earth and it is part of us. Flowers our sister, animals our brothers, earth our mother

Native American Believes

Everything symbolizes something. Indians believe that even a stone, a tree, or a lake has a soul, a spirit
Erdoes & Ortiz, 1998. American Indian trickster Tales, USA Penguin Book. p.xx

Native American Myth

Myth: an anonymous story or stories having roots in the primitive folk beliefs or races or nations and presenting supernatural ( Holman, 1981, 242 Native American myth traditional narrative associated with Native American religion from mythological perspective Native American belief systems include many sacred narratives. Great Spirit Traditional worship: gathering with dance, Rhytm, song.

Native American Myth

The Symbols are Divided into: 1. Human Being 2. Animal 3. Nature
Often Indian songs contain allusion to Indian customs and beliefs which are unfamiliar to white (Velie, 74)

Native American Myth

Gibbens quoted People could not pray until they had laughed, because laughter opens and frees from rigid preconception. . most sacred ceremonies for fear that they forget the sacred comes through upset, reversal, surprise. Myths and tales were educational tools that taught the young tribal belief and values (Velie 7).

Native American Song

(Wishes of Happiness & Prosperity)

Song : A lyric poem adapted to musical expression. Song lyrics are usually short, simple, sensuous, emotional, Perhaps the most spontaneous lyric form.
(Holman . A Handbook to literature, 1981:422)

Song were usually created for tribal occasions :

Such us : Initiation rites Healing ceremonies Planting or hunting ritual Also used : Tribal History Standards of ethnical conduct Religion beliefs

Variety of song based on Holman : - Dance song - Love song - War song - Plays song - Drinking song - Song for festival

(Wishes of Happiness & Prosperity)
- Sacred spirit - Native American Chant - Traditional Navajo chant

Inviting and contact with ghost Eternal Fire Endless Rain Revealing

Rise from ancient tombs A rise from the catacombs Land of the dead Deity of death & darkness

The sacred spirits That all live Who makes the day, sun, night, moon, storms, rain

- Cast unto Flames - Reveal the sun - The dawn may break

The singer of this song is a Navajo man Called Kee Chee Jake Sadly he passed away in Sept 1999
(www. Sacred spirit-native

Based on Indian culture : - Healing song sung to cleanse and heal Navajos - Navajos veterans of United States Use to purify them selves.

- At first to cleanse and heal warrior - Now : sung to a family or loved one - To simply wish in getting happiness and prosperity

- Pray for the better life, avoiding the bad, evil - Keep strengthen togetherness between Indian - Yeha Noha is a traditional Navajo chant

- Means wishes of happiness and prosperity among the family and the people that they love

Indonesian : - Incantation - Religious Song

(Wishes of Happiness & Prosperity)

They The Ancestors Said, That It Is Through, The Sacred Spirits, That All Live! He Who Makes The Day Recreate The Sun He Who Makes The Night Recreate The Moon He Who Makes The Storms Supplicate Us With Rain He Who Makes The Wind Supplicate Us With Force

O Ye Of Eternal Fire O Ye Of The Endless Rain O Lord, Reveal Thyself To Me O Ye Of Eternal Fire Reveal Thy Sun To Me O, I Beckon Thee Bring Upon The Dawn Reveal Thyself To Me

Rise Up From The Ancient Tombs Grant Us All Your Infinite Wisdom Endure As You Arise From The Catacombs Lord Of Mictlan Land Of The Dead Deity Of Death And Darkness That Which Lies Upon The Graves

(Wishes of Happiness & Prosperity)

I Cast Myself Unto Flames Reveal Thy Sun To Me In Order That The Dawn May Break

Nature Responses Alhadid

Nature Responses toward Humans words

Islamic view Point

maka aku katakan kepada mereka: "Mohonlah ampun kepada Tuhanmu, sesungguhnya Dia adalah Maha Pengampun "Saying, 'Ask forgiveness from your Lord; for He is Oft-Forgiving;

THE POWER Nature Responses OF NATURE toward Humans words

Niscaya Dia akan mengirimkan hujan kepadamu dengan lebat 'He will send rain to you in abundance;

Nature Responses toward Humans words

Islamic view Point

. . .

Nature Responses toward Humans words

88. Dan mereka berkata: "Tuhan Yang Maha Pemurah mengambil (mempunyai) anak

They say: "(Allah) Most Gracious has begotten a son!

89. Sesungguhnya kamu telah mendatangkan sesuatu perkara yang sangat mungkar

Indeed ye have put forth a thing most monstrous!

90. hampir-hampir langit pecah karena ucapan itu, dan bumi belah, dan gununggunung runtuh,

At it the skies are ready to burst, the earth to split asunder, and the mountains to fall down in utter ruin,
91. karena mereka mendakwa Allah Yang Maha Pemurah mempunyai anak.

That they should invoke a son for (Allah) Most Gracious

Myth is part of Native American Life to deal with the great Spirit. Myth bring values toward the life and can strengthen togetherness of society.

Native American Closely related to the nature and everything has spirit

Myth as an entry point to strengthen the Creed of students through American Indian and Islamic view point Hope: Reading can improve students understanding about beliefs .

Barthes, Roland . 1972. Mythologies. Hill and Wang: New York Bohannan, Paul. and Glazer, Mark. High Points in Anthropology. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. 1973. Print Bressler, Charles. E. Literary Criticism an Introduction to Theory and Practice. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 1999. Print Burland, Cottie. North American Indian Mythology. London: Paul Hamlyn. Dillistone. 2002. The Power of Symbol. Kanisius: Yogyakarta Douglas, 1967. The Structural Study of Myth and Totemism, E. R. Leach (ed). London:Tavistock Erdoes & Ortiz, 1998. American Indian trickster Tales, USA Penguin Book Holman . 1981 . A Handbook to Literature, Newton, K.M. 1990. Twentient Century Literary Theory. Macmillan: London Spence, Lewis. Myth and Legend of the North American Indians. London: The Collectors Library of Myth and Legend. 2004. Velie, Alan R. 1991. American Indian Literature an Anthology, USA: University of Oklahoma Press. Wolfe, Michael. 1993 Haji Kesaksian seorang mualaf . Jakarta: Serambi.

Bastian, Dawn E. and Mitchell, Judy K. Handbook Of Native American Mythology Santa Barbara, California. 1961. Print Eliot, Alexander. The Universal Myth: Heroes, Gods, Tricksters, and Others. New York: Truman Talley Books. 1990. Print Jung. Carl. G. Four Archetypes: Mother, Rebirth, Spirit and Trickster. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. 1976. Print Leitch. Barbara. A concise dictionary of Indian Tribes of North America. Michigan: Reference Publication. Inc.1979. Print Lynch, Patria An. Native American Mythology A to Z, NewYork: Facts On File, Inc. 2004. Print Page, Jake. In the Hands of great spirit: The 20,000 year History of American Indian. New York: Free Press. 2003. Print

Thank You