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CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION EARLY DEVELOPMENT WORKING OF NVT THERMAL IMAGING TYPES OF THERMAL IMAGING DEVICES IMAGE ENHANCEMENT GENERATIONS CURRENT GENERATION NIGHT VISION EQUIPMENTS APPLICATIONS CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION
Night vision is the ability to see in low light conditions. Whether by biological or technological means, night vision is made possible by a combination of two approaches: sufficient spectral range, and sufficient intensity range. Humans have poor night vision compared to many animals.

EARLY DEVELOPMENT
The first night vision devices (NVD) were created

during WWII. Functioned by placing an infrared filter over a searchlight. Fighters would use special binoculars to see using the light from the searchlights. There were many disadvantages to using the searchlights and flares.

WORKING OF NVT
IMAGE ENHANCEMENT:-Image intensification

technologies work on the principle of magnifying the amount of received photons from various natural sources such as starlight or moonlight. Examples of such technologies include night glasses and low light cameras. THERMAL IMAGING:-Thermal imaging technologies work by detecting the temperature difference between the background and the foreground objects.

THERMAL IMAGING
A special lens focuses the

infrared light emitted by objects. The focused light is then scanned by phased array of infrared-detector. The thermogram is then translated into electrical impulses. The impulses are sent to a signal-processing unit(S.P.U). At last the (S.P.U) sends information to the display.

TYPES OF THERMAL IMAGING DEVICES


Un-cooled - This is the most common type of thermal-

imaging device. The infrared-detector elements are contained in a unit that operates at room temperature. This type of system is completely quiet, activates immediately and has the battery built right in. Cryogenically cooled - More expensive and more susceptible to damage from rugged use, these systems have the elements sealed inside a container that cools them to below 32 F (zero C). The advantage of such a system is the incredible resolution and sensitivity that result from cooling the elements.

IMAGE ENHANCEMENT
A objective lens, captures ambient light and near-infrared light from the object. The gathered light is sent to the imageintensifier tube. A photocathode, which is used to convert the photons of light energy into electrons. As the electrons pass through the tube, multiplying the original number

of electrons by a factor of thousands through the use of a microchannel plate (MCP) in the tube. At the end of the image-intensifier tube, the electrons hit a screen coated with phosphors. The green phosphor image is viewed through another lens, called theocular lens,

GENERATIONS
GENERATION O:i. First created by U.S.Army in early 1950s. ii. These were based on image conversion rather than

intensification. iii. Used in World war II and Korean war. GENERATION 1:i. Developed in 1960s . ii. NVDs of this generation use ambient light provided by the moon and stars. iii. Used in Vietnam to carryout operations. iv. Operating life of 2,000 hours.

Cont.
GENERATION 2:i. Developed in 1970s. ii. First Micro Channel Plate(MCP) application. iii. One-Quarter Moon Operation. iv. Operating life:2,500hrs. GENERATION 3:i. Developed in 1990s. ii. Improved MCP & Photocathode. iii. Starlight operation. iv. Operating life:10,000hrs.

CURRENT GENERATION
Generation 3 is currently used by the U.S. military.
However Generation 4 is under consideration, which

has overall improvement in both low and high-level light environments and even less noisy than generation 3.

NIGHT VISION EQUIPMENTS


Scopes -

Normally handheld or mounted on a weapon. ii. Scopes are monocular in nature. iii. Since scopes are handheld, not worn like goggles.
i.

cont.
Goggles -

Goggles can be handheld, they are most often worn on the head. ii. Goggles are binocular (two eyepieces) and may have a single lens or stereo lens.
i.

Cont.
Cameras -

Cameras with NVT can send the image to a monitor for display or to a VCR for recording. ii. It is desired in a permanent location, such as on a building for Security.
i.

APPLICATIONS
Military Hunting

Wildlife observation
Surveillance Security

Navigation
Hidden-object detection

CONCLUSION
In conclusion I believe that is wonderful how

something originally designed for destruction, can now help people on an every-day basis. This is truly amazing technology.

THANKS FOR PATIENTS!!!

ANY QUERY???