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Abhimanyu Maheshwari 109, Darshan Mehta 110, Hiloni Modi-111 Ankita Mundhra-112, Manas Patil-113, Prannoy Pillai-114 Pranjal

Saiwal-115, Lakhi Sakaria-116

Standard Parts of a Letter


Inside Address
Salutation Body Complimentary Close Signature Block

Reference Initials

Business Letter in Full Block Style

(notice that you dont indent at all in a block style business letter)

Business Letter in Modified Block Style

Supplementary Parts of a Letter

Attention Line

Subject Line
Company Name in Signature Block Enclosure or attachment notation Copy Notation Postscript

Punctuation Style

Business Letter along with Supplementary Parts

Supplementary Parts of a Letter

Envelopes Return Address Mailing Address Envelope Notation

Size Color Quality Continuation Pages


References and Recommendations are similar except:

Reference is written as a reply to an inquiry It is addressed to person who has signed the inquiry
Recommendation is written at the request of candidate It is addressed to a prospective employer

Style and content is same Both depend on:

Relationship between candidate and reference The nature of acquaintance (principal, employer, teacher etc)

Form filled by the reference for specific information

Important aspects like candidates ability, intelligence, character etc are included
Vague statements are avoided Letter can also be sent as inquiry The word Confidential is written on the letter and envelope.

If an employer is a reference; reason for leaving previous job should be mentioned
Reference/Recommendation Letter should include:
Candidates name, length and nature of acquaintance Brief account of conduct at the job Few remarks about nature Reason for seeking other employment Opinion on suitability for the post applied


It is not a letter
Certification that the writer:
Has known the subject for a certain period Has known the subject in a particular capacity Has noted certain qualities of the person

Carries the title Certification or Recommendation Subject may or may not use it Depreciates rapidly


Given by the employer to the employee

Legal documents , produced as proof of claim during a dispute Advisable to sign the letter after being examined and found satisfactory Both parties have to abide by conditions

Most companies have proforma letters for uniformity

Must begin with full name of receiver

The salutation is by name

The complimentary close is Yours sincerely Signature must be followed by designation of person

Must contain following details:

Name of the post Scale of pay and rate of increment (eg: 5000 100 7000 200 10000) Basic salary Allowances applicable (City Living Allowance, Travel Allowance) Date on which expected to take charge of post Benefits available (Provident Fund, Pension) Period of probation, if any Period of notice required for termination by either side


Given at the end of the probation period

Important because certain benefits applicable only after confirmation

Once confirmed, appointment cannot be terminated unless required notice is given

Usually, person is informally interviewed before being given a confirmation letter Congratulatory expressions may be included

Confirmation letter should contain:

Brief reference to satisfactory completion of probation Date from which appointment is confirmed Benefits applicable after confirmation Request for signature on copies, in acceptance


Given when a person is selected for a higher post Promotion letter should contain:
Date of promotion Name of new post and scale of pay Basic salary to be given to the person Reference to extra benefits, if any Request for acceptance

Congratulatory expressions may be included


Given to an employee:
Whose work is unsatisfactory Who violates rules and regulations Behaves in an undisciplined manner

It is given in confidence

It is never issued without previous oral warning

It should contain clear and exact details of faults committed

It should contain evidence of fault (attendance registers, leave registers etc)

It should not have vague statements It is not a threat of dismissal from service Confirmations/Increments/Promotions may be withheld until improvement is shown.


Appreciating others is a major function of a supervisor/team leader.

Open communication is an important reason why employees like their organization

Rewards are among the primary ways of encouraging and motivating employees Companies realize that employees are assets and growth comes from asset appreciation

Letter of Appreciation should be brief, direct and concise

Jargon, old-fashioned stereotypes and cliches should be avoided Enthusiasm and genuine pleasure in the success of someone should be reflected It can be written on various occasions


Written when employee meets with misfortune of any kind

Though difficult to write; should be written immediately on hearing of situation It should be sincere and tact It should be written in simple language to express genuine feelings Avoid words which may hurt the sentiments of the reader Letter of condolence should be short and simple May include a suitable tribute or words of praise It is written to give comfort and encouragement to the reader

Structure of the Sales Letter

It follows the four stages of the selling process 1. Attract Attention 2. Create interest and desire 3. Win confidence 4. Motivate action

This process of making indifferent customer into potential buyers can be described as the five Ps of persuasion

Please Picture Proof Promise Push

Attracting Attention
It is not only the appearance and the idea that

attract and influence the reader. The style of the sentence is equally important Four main types of sentences are:
Statement Question Command Exclamation

Proverbs and Quotation It is the busiest man who has the time to spare Striking information The noise level in metro cities has already reached 95 decibels while the tolerance limit is 45 decibels Stories and anecdotes Split opening You cant buy everything in the world-------- but you CAN buy the best of some things Conditional Sentence If you have intelligent children, thry will ask questions which adults never dream of.

Beginning with Wh- word Beginning with verbs like can, would, are Question tags which ask for the confirmation of

the statement

Words like Stop, Arrest, Look out sound like a


The festival season is here again!

Creating Interest And Desire

Interest can be created by giving a vivid and dramatic description of the pleasure or comfort

of possessing a product or having a service rendered. The letter must show how the product can satisfy the aroused need. The brand name of the product is used as often as possible and is printed in capitals in color or in a distinctive style. Negative appeal is generally avoided.

Creating conviction and winning confidence

The initial interest and desire for a product gives place to doubts and uncertainty of different kinds and on different accounts To overcome this, evidence (facts and opinions) should be used. Facts: They should be reliable and verifiable Figures of sales Medals, prizes won Samples, guarantees, demonstrations and trial offers Opinions: They are personal. They can be useful only if the source is reliable. Example: Fruitco sauce won a gold medal at the international Food for Health Exhibition held in New Delhi last year. And of course, all our products bear the ISI mark.

Inducing Action
The sentence must be extra ordinarily clear and precise. Some commonly used inducements are:
Gift/price-concession coupon valid up to a given date Reduced price if the purchase is made by a given date Just sign and mail the enclosed pre-paid card today and get a free, ten day trial of our product (Command) Wont you use the enclosed form so that we may add your name to our list of Helpers of Neglected Children? (Friendly) Hurry to join the dancers ! The special rates close on the 18th (Exclamatory)

Words like if, may, hope, trust. Offering a choice Saying anything about the product after urging the action


Routine letters Effectiveness depends on the accuracy of the

details All important content are tabulated Details of an order: Product, its specifications and quantity Packing Delivery Settlement of account

Important pointers for an order and replies

Reference to previous communications (first

order)/ request to send goods Details of the required goods Goodwill message

Acknowledgementis essential Creates and maintains goodwill withcustomers

Drafting Orders
First order
First hand prices and terms are settled Opens with a reference to the received quotation

Ends with the expectation that the trial order will be satisfactory and lead to regular business

Reply to the first Order

Expression of thanks is essential Statement of terms

Assurance of goods, service and expectations

First Order based on a sample

When the seller has agreed to a bargain, open

the order letter with a reference to it

we thank you for agreeing to give us special packing at no extra charge

If you are convinced that the seller cannot

give better terms, but still wish to place the order

we understand that it is not possible for you to give us export packing without charging extra, but we are willing to take a lot of your Milk powder tins

If you decide to try an offered substitute, you

may order a small lot

We are willing to try the A1 disinfectant cleaning fluid which you have offered instead of A3 disinfectant we had asked for

A buyer may place an order on his own initiative on seeing an advertisement

There is a good demand for cotswool shirts in this town and we would like to have a trial consignment according to the following details

Repeat Order and Reply

Opens with a reference to first order and

continuation of business

Appreciation for success of the trial order

Statement of terms
Increased expectations for the continuation of the

business Appreciation for regular/regained customer orders

Repeat Order
Appreciation for regular customer orders
Make personnel contact with all customers Show continuous appreciation of the regular

business Largely a goodwill letter addressed with name

Appreciating orders from regained buyers

Expression of gratitude for the long-missed order Statement of routine acknowledgement

Assurance of highly satisfactory service

Changes in order
Customer request to change

Reference to order Statement and explanation for change Offer to co-operate/ adjust Apology for inconvenience caused

Sellers reply to customer request for change

Agreement to make the changes as requested Statement of terms for purpose of acknowledgement

Sellers request for change

Explanation for change Terms of acceptance

Routine Order and Reply

Opens with a courteous please Prices and terms are fixed as custom Any special requirements are stated at the

beginning or at the end

References to previous orders Meeting of demands in any changes in orders Agreement on central ground for any changes


After-Sales Letters
An essential business courtesy and practice Reinforces contact, goodwill and further

business opportunities Checks the satisfaction and after-sales services Increases chances of Word-of Mouth publicity

Indicates the purpose for which the

information is needed
A series of direct questions may follow the

opening paragraph
End letter with a friendly comment

Enquiry letter
Dear Sir, During a recent Trade Fair held here, I saw some samples of your new granite tiles for flooring. I would like to make use of them for the interiors I am designing for a new housing complex. Please give me the following information:
In what sizes, colours and designs can you supply the tiles? Are the tiles likely to be affected by rising moisture? Is any special processing of the under-flooring required?

I shall be most grateful if you could send me answers to these questions by Friday, the 17th. Yours faithfully,

Reply to enquiry
Your letter must do a sales job

You need persuasive skills and good judgment in giving information Give relevant page numbers or models to what has been provided with letter Show the advantage of the product

Reply to enquiry
Dear Sir, Thank you for your enquiry of 22 October about our new PVC tiles for flooring. We have enclosed a copy of our catalogue showing the designs and range of colours in which the tiles are available. Messrs Dhruv& Co, 23 M.G. Raut Road, Dhulia, is a reliable firm and handles all our products in your area. We have asked Mr Dhruv to get in touch with you; he will inspect the premises and advice you whether moisture would give rise to any problem. Our new PVC tiles are hard-wearing and, if they are laid according to the instructions provided by us, will give you lasting satisfaction. Yours faithfully,

Asking for quotation and its reply

Polite request for quotation Details of requirements with quality and quantity

of goods Place and time of delivery of goods


Thanks for the enquiry Statement of prices and terms Attempt to win the customer

Asking for quotations

Dear Sir, We intend to purchase large stocks of notebooks for our newly opened Department of Stationery in our Department Store at Dadar, and invite you to submit your most competitive quotation. If your prices and terms are favourable, and your goods and services are of a high standard, we shall consider giving a five year contract for the supply of notebooks. Please send your quotation, carriage paid, within a week. Yours faithfully,

Reply to request for quotation

Dear Sir, Thank you for your letter of the 13th, asking for a quotation for the supply of 3000 units of IFB microwave ovens. Our price-list is enclosed; we give a discount of 7% on all orders of 1000 units and above, and deliver goods carriage paid within the city of Mumbai. Please note that this offer is firm only till 30 September. The demand for microwave ovens has increased considerably, and the production cannot keep pace with added demand just before Diwali festival. As your order is large, we shall hold the goods at your disposal for 5 days. We urge you to take advantage of his offer and send us your order by 30 September. Yours truly,

Bargaining letters
Expression of thanks for the quotation

Specific request for more favorable terms and attempt

to show that the supplier will benefit Suggestion that large orders will be placed if the request ids granted

Sellers reply
Try to win customer Agreeing to reduce price should not the impression

that previous quoted price were not fair.

Bargaining letter
Dear Sir, Thank you for your quotation for washing machines. We approve of your model nos. X and Z and would like to place an order immediately for at least 10 machines, five of each model. However, we feel that your carriage forward terms are high. We usually get our supplies on carriage paid terms, and request you to reconsider this. We are planning to open launderettes in several places, and will be placing further orders if we find your products and terms satisfactory. You will be compensated by the large orders we shall be placing. As we are about to equip our newly opened launderettes, we would like to have your reply within a week. Yours faithfully,

Sellers reply
Dear Sir, We are glad to learn from your letter of 19February that you have undertaken a project to establish launderettes in several places in the city, and we are happy to be able to cooperate with you in the project. Since this is long term project and there will be continuous business for quite some time, we are prepared to supply our washing machines on carriage paid terms as you have requested. Our machines are guaranteed for 5 years and are backed up by our excellent after sales service. We undertake to ensure your complete satisfaction with our products. Our representative will visit you within four days to inspect the location and check the facilities for installation of the machines. Yours faithfully,

Asking for favours

Buyers side
Ask for a concession Show that seller has an advantage

Sellers reply
Granting a request Refusing a request

Keeping in mind future business with the customer are not damaged

Asking for favours

Dear Sir, There is a good opportunity to sell a large quantity of your assorted chocolate boxes through our 96 branches in the states of Maharashtra and Karnataka during the festival seasons. We propose to offer the boxes as Diwali/New Year gift items and request you to give us gift packing at no additional charge. We will be ordering 6000 boxes to be delivered by 10 October. It will give excellent publicity to your products in a wide market, and bring you good returns in increased sales. Please let us know by the end of this week if you accept this approval, as we would like to include the item in our publicity material which we will be printing next week. We are looking forward to adding your products to our list of special festival gifts. Yours faithfully,

Granting a request
Gentlemen; We are glad to say that we shall be able to give you the special gift packing you requested for our boxes of assorted chocolates at no extra charge. Since your proposed order exceeds 5000 boxes we shall be able to get a substantial concession in the price of packing material which makes it possible for us to bear the cost. Please place your order by 15 September so that we can order the special gift boxes before the festival season rush begins. Yours faithfully,

Refusing a request
Dear Sir, We have considered your request for a further discount of 5% on goods purchased during your Sales Week, but regret that we are unable to give any further discount. Our paints are severely tested for high quality, and experience has shown that our paints do not peel off or flake even from walls which are in poor condition. The paints are packed in galvanized tins for longer durability, and the cost of these tins is quite high. The 7% discount which we have offered is the maximum we can give on purchases. We allow an additional 2% cash discount if the bill is paid in cash within 7 days. We are sure that you will understand that it is not possible for us to give further discounts, and will place your order on the originally offered terms. Yours faithfully,

Getting back lost customers

Address the letter to a specific person by

name, and include:

Statement that the customers communication

has been missed Tactful enquiry about why he/she has been silent Information about new product/service or special offer Request for order, assurances that satisfaction will be ensured

Getting back lost customer

Dear Mr Mehta, There has been no communication from you for a long time; I am anxious to know the reason. Did I unwittingly given you cause for dissatisfaction? If so, please tell me, and I shall gladly make adjustments. I am able to offer the most competitive prices and terms now, owing to re-organization of the business. The new price-list is enclosed. Delivery is free for long standing customers like you. I am enclosing a new easy-to-kill order form. Your requirements will reach you on the same day as I receive your order. Your convenience and comfort is my business. Yours sincerely,

Purpose: To get correction and adjustment 5 Cs of good letter writing:

Clear Complete Concise Courteous Correct

Occasions for writing complaints

Reaction to the problem and your

expectation of the sellers response will depend on whether you are:

A commercial buyer Or a consumer

Possible grievances a buyer may have

Goods arrive in damaged

condition Goods are not what you had ordered Quantity of goods is different from what you had ordered Goods are delivered at the wrong place

Delivery of goods or completion

of work delayed Work undertaken is done unsatisfactorily Product does not function properly Discourtesy from staff or shop or office Mistakes in a bill, or reminders for payment after you have paid the bill

Points to be covered (Complaint letter)

1. Reference to the order, its date, number 2. Clear description of mistake or deficiency 3. Clear statement of the inconvenience or loss

caused 4. Request for adjustment and/or investigation

Points to be covered (Claims letter)

1. Inform the receiver of details related to the

goods to be claimed. 2. Make clear what your claim is. 3. Request the action: a replacement, repair, refund or compensation



What are Adjustment letters

A written response by a representative of a

business or agency to a customer'sclaim letter.

An adjustment letter explains how a problem with a

product or service may (or may not) be resolved.

It can be used as strategy for sales and collection.

Purpose & Must

Customer Satisfaction Rebuilt Customers confidence in your

company & regain lost goodwill Letter must have:

Regret for inconvenience caused Explanation for what went wrong What can be done speedily

Writing good letter

Positive attitude for writing
Objective attitude to error Locate the error Control the error Forgive the error

Be Helpful and sympathetic

Understand the inconvenience casued to


DOs and Donts

Use unpleasant phrases- you claim Be surprised on learning dissatisfaction Accept the blame and take responsibility Dont repeat ugly details mentioned by

customer Give details of confusion Try explaining refusal by saying company policy

Types of Adjustment letters

Granting adjustment Refusing adjustment Offering a compromise( partial adjustment) Apologizing for errors that cant be corrected Offering to make adjustment assuming dissatisfaction Stop gap letter Answering complains for reader grievances column

Letters Granting Adjustment

Letters refusing Adjustment

Partial Adjustment

Letters of apology for irreparable loss

Letters Offering to make adjustment assuming dissatisfaction

Letters informing customers that claim is being examined

Business Reports

What is a business report?

Record of events Interpretation of facts Evaluation of facts or results Outcomes of discussions held Recommendations

What it must be
Accurate Concise Clear Well structured

Preparation for a report

Purpose Objective : Inform, argue, evaluate, persuade Know what the reader wants to see
Hence, it requires planning and research



Introduction Body Results Conclusion

Contents Terms of reference

Procedure Materials and Methods Appendices References Bibliography Glossary


Types of Reports
Structure: Well defined structure More pictorial representations Content used: Requires extensive research

Ambiguous structure Mostly written paragraphs Does not require much research


presented to mainly designed people who are for outside within the circle parties of the business or a project team

Representation of Business Report

Business Memoranda
A business memo is a piece of interoffice correspondence sent between employees in a company to transmit ideas decisions, requests or announcements. Nowadays, email has ousted them in most of the organizations

Memo - header