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CHAPTER 2 : OSCILLATORS

2.1 INTRODUCTION

An electronic circuit which is designed to generate a periodic waveform continuously at a specific frequency. Also known as a sinusoidal waveform generator. For the square-wave generator, it is known as multivibrator. Can be classified into two major classifications: feedback oscillators and relaxation oscillators.

2.

INTRODUCTION cont)

Feedback oscillator

based on the principle of positive feedback. widely used to generate sinusoidal waveforms.

Relaxation oscillators

use an RC timing circuit and a device that changes states to generate a periodic waveform. widely used to generate nonsinusoidal waveforms

WE FOCUS ON THIS

2.1 INTRODUCTION

APPLICATION

(cont)

Modem, intercom

TV & radio

BLOCK DIAGRAM

Positive feedback amplifier consists of amplifier having gain of A and feedback circuit with gain of . A part of output is fed back to input through feedback circuit. The signal which is fed back is added to the input signal using summer and output of the summer acts as an actual input signal to the amplifier. In oscillator, there is no need of external input signal. To start the oscillations, output signal must be fed back in proper magnitude and phase.

To start the oscillation with the constant amplitude, positive feedback is not the only sufficient condition. Oscillator circuit must satisfy the following two conditions known as Barkhausen conditions: a.

The first condition is that the magnitude of the loop gain (A) must be unity. This means the product of gain of amplifier 'A' and the gain of feedback network '' has to be unity. ( A = 1 )

b. The second condition is that the phase shift around the loo must be 360 or 0. This means, the phase shift through th amplifier and feedback network has to be 360 or 0. ( Phase Shift = 3600 or 00)

TYPES

Phase-Shift Oscillator

Wien-Bridge Oscillator

Twin-T Oscillator

Generally, RC feedback oscillators are used for frequencies up to about 1MHz. (audio frequency range)

The feedback network of this oscillator consists of resistors and capacitors Each of the three RC circuits in the feedback loop can provide a maximum phase shift approaching 90.

Oscillation occurs at the frequency where the total phase shift through the three RC circuits is 180. The inversion of the op-amp itself provides the additional 180 to meet the requirement for oscillation of a 360 (or 0) phase shift around the feedback loop.

Frequency of oscillation,

(cont)

1 fo 2RC 6

where R1 = R2 = R3 = R and C1 = C2 = C3 = C

1 29

where

Voltage gain,

RA RF

Af

A 1 - A

For the loop gain A to be greater than unity, the gain of the amplifier stage must be greater than 1/ or 29 ;

A 29

(cont)

Example: 1 (a) Determine the value of Rf necessary for the circuit in figure to operate as an oscillator. Given C1 = C2 = C3 = 1nF and R1 = R2 = R3 = RA = 10k (b) Determine the frequency of oscillation.

Although the RC feedback oscillators are generally suitable for frequencies up to about 1MHz, LC feedback elements are normally used in oscillators that require higher frequencies of oscillation. Because of the frequency limitation (lower unity gain frequency) of most op-amps, discrete transistors (BJT or FET) are often used as the gain element in LC oscillators. Also known as tuned oscillators that use a parallel LC resonant circuit (LC tank) to provide the oscillations.

(cont)

TYPES

Colpitts Oscillator

Crystal Oscillator

This type of oscillator uses an LC circuit in the feedback loop to provide the necessary phase shift and to act as a resonant filter that passes only the desired frequency of oscillation. The oscillator frequency can be found to be:

where

1 fo 2 ( LCT )

C 1C 2 CT = C1 + C 2

BJT COLPITTS OSCILLATOR

(cont)

value of AV for the Colpitts oscillator

(cont)

Vo Vo X C 2 C 1 Av = = = = Vi Vf X C 1 C 2

the feedback factor

XC1 C2 = = = Vo X C 2 C 1

Vf

The Hartley oscillator is similar to the Colpitts except that the feedback circuit consists of two series inductors and a parallel capacitor

1 fo 2 ( LTC )

BJT HARTLEY OSCILLATOR

(cont)

Note that inductors L1 and L2 have a mutual coupling M, which must be taken into account in determining the equivalent inductance for the resonant tank circuit. So,

LT L1 L2 2M

Av

the feedback factor

Vo X L L2 2 Vf X L1 L1

Vf Vo

FET HARTLEY OSCILLATOR

X L1 L1 X L2 L2

A crystal oscillator is basically a tuned-circuit oscillator using a piezoelectric crystal in the feedback loop to control the frequency. Crystal oscillators are used whenever great stability is required, such as in communication transmitters and receivers. Most stable and accurate type of feedback oscillator. A crystal can produce frequency of oscillation between 1kHz to 200MHz.

Because of the crystals equivalent circuit is a series-parallel RLC circuit, the crystal can operate in either series resonance or parallel resonance. At the series resonant frequency, the series-resonant impedance is very low (equal to R).

series-resonant frequency

(cont)

fS

1 2 LC

Parallel resonance (or anti resonance condition of the crystal) occurs at a higher frequency (at least 1kHz higher than the series resonant frequency) where

1 fp 2 LC T

CT C CM

BJT Crystal-controlled oscillator using crystal in series-feedback path.

(cont)

(cont)

An op-amp can be used in a crystal oscillator. The crystal is connected in the series-resonant path and operates at the crystal series-resonant frequency. A pair of Zener diodes is shown at the output to provide output amplitude at exactly the Vz.

Used to produce a sine-wave output of constant amplitude and of fairly constant frequency within the RF range. Generally used as a local oscillator in receivers, as a source in signal generators, and as a radio-frequency oscillator in the medium- and high-frequency range. Characteristics - (1) it uses an LC tuned circuit to establish the frequency of oscillation, (2) feedback is accomplished by mutual inductive coupling between the tickler coil and the LC tuned circuit, (3) it uses a class C amplifier with self-bias. Its frequency is fairly stable, and the output amplitude is relatively constant.

(cont)

The feedback for an oscillator doesn't need to come from an electrical connection. The feedback comes from magnetic coupling between the coil in the tank circuit and a tickler coil, T. The frequency of oscillation is still controlled primarily by the tank circuit, so that

2f

1 LC

However, in this circuit there are several factors that make this equation only approximate.

(cont)

Of course, we have the stray capacitances in the transistor and the small inductances of the component leads. But this time we also have that tickler coil, which acts as a load on L due to mutual inductance. All of these factors pull the frequency off a bit. C can be made variable in order to either adjust the frequency to a specific value, or to make it variable over a range.

Resonance effect

The resonance effect occurs when inductive and capacitive reactances are equal in absolute value. The frequency at which this equality holds for the particular circuit is called the resonant frequency. The resonant frequency of the LC circuit is

where L is the inductance in henries, and C is the capacitance in farads. The angular frequency has units of radians per second. The equivalent frequency in units of hertz is

Tutorial

Question 1 Calculate the operating frequency of a BJT phase-shift oscillator for R = 6k, C = 1500 pF and RC = 18k.

Tutorial

Question 2 For an FET Colpitts oscillator as in figure and the following circuit values, determine the circuit oscillation frequency if C1 = 750 pF, C2 = 2500 pF and L = 40H.

Tutorial

Question 3 For the transistor Colpitts oscillator and the following circuit values, calculate the oscillation frequency: L = 100 H, LRFC = 0.5 mH, C1 = 0.005 F, C2 = 0.01 F and CC = 10 F.

Tutorial

Question 4 Calculate the oscillator frequency for an FET Hartley oscillator for the following circuit values: C = 250 pF, L1 = 1.5 mH, L2 = 1.5 mH, and M = 0.5 mH.

Tutorial

Question 5 Calculate the oscillation frequency for the transistor Hartley circuit of the following circuit values: LRFC = 0.5 mH, L1 = 750 H, L2 = 750 H, M = 150 H and C = 150 pF.

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