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Electrical distribution and common

loading devices
Design Requirements
• Electrical system which can provide the
maximum load required (maximum reliability)
• Electrical system that can distribute the needed
capacity at the right proportion (continuation
of supply)
• Safe electrical system from overloading
condition (adaptability to load variation)
• Design which take weight, size and price in
consideration
"system" evaluation
• Is the apparatus enclosure appropriate for the
location?
• Is the fixture adequately grounded to reduce the
shock hazard? -Is the fixture enclosure fire retardant
and not surrounded by combustibles?
• Will a fault in the fixture be safely cleared by the first
upstream overcurrent device so that other parts of the
electrical system are not needlessly affected?
• If it is a vital safety system, is the failure indicated
and an alternative or back-up provided?
• Do the components go together?
• Capacity. Determining the number and size of generating sets
needed for a vessel requires a careful analysis of the normal
and maximum demands during various phases of operation,
including at sea, maneuvering, and in port.
• Also, any special or unique operational considerations should
be addressed. It is the intent of the regulations to ensure all
normal "ship's service" loads can be kept energized with the
largest generator out of operation, and without use of the
emergency generator.
• It is not the intent of the regulations to ensure that the vessel
can continue to perform an industrial function, such as drilling
or dredging, with a generator in reserve.
Design Works:
• Load Identification
– identifying the load by listing down all electrical equipment installed on board
– air conditioning and refrigerated holds must be included
– identify all the equipment rated or nominal kW
• Load Analysis
– Analysis the load and prioritizes its importance
– Determine its service factor which based on time used in 24 hours period
– Allowance for losses must also be included
– Determine the needed kW for all condition (sea, fishing, port, emergency etc)
• Generator Sets Determination
• Wiring and Electrical Distribution Diagram
• Wiring Arrangements.

Design Requirements
• 1. Mission
• 2. Scenarios
• 3. Key Roles
• 4. Key Task
• 5. User Characteristics
• 6. System Effectiveness machineries in emergency cases.
• 7. Operability
• 8. Crew Station and Interface Design9. User Acceptance
• 10. Survivability
• 11. Maintainability
• 12. Availability
• 13. Reliability
• 14. Safety and Health
The load analysis documents
• (a) Individual load factors used are reasonable.
• (b) Application of the load factors is reasonable and thorough.
• (c) Generating plant is adequate and in accordance with the applicable
regulations.
(2) Considerations. The load analysis should be prepared and evaluated with
the following considerations in mind:
• (a) Loads can be classified by various operating conditions such as port,
anchor, sea, functional, emergency, maneuvering, or cold start. The load
analysis will normally address only the normal sea load, maneuvering load
and emergency load, unless special considerations for the safety of the ship
require otherwise (e.g., at sea cargo transfer (functional)).
• (b) A motor may be oversized for its attached load and thus not operate at
its rated capacity.
• (c) Formulas for the determination of load factors for major steam
propulsion vessels may be found in SNAME T&R Bulletin 3-11, "Marine
Steam power Plant Heat Balance Practices", Section 3.2.15.
The load analysis documents
• (e) A single load factor for group loads may be assigned if they meet one
of the following criteria:
• (1) Two or more loads operate with a definite relationship to each other
(e.g., heating and air conditioning);
• (ii) When the relationship described in (i) above is not clear, but is known
to exist (e.g., galley equipment);
• (iii) When low power loads in the same space can be assigned roughly the
same load factors (e.g., radios and electronics).
• (f) Known load use data should always be used in lieu of demand factors,
if available.
• (g) Power conversions and their efficiency should be considered (e.g.
power factors, transformers, semiconductor controlled rectifiers (SCR's).
Due to efficiency below 1.0, apparent connected loads may be increased
due to the conversion equipment).
The load analysis documents
• (h) Loads that are provided individual factors in the analysis should not be
additionally assigned a group factor, and vice versa (e.g., 0.3 (individual
factor) x 0.4 (group factor) 0.12 (final factor) (either 0.3 or 0.4 could be
used, but not 0.12)).
• (i) Factors of zero (0) are assigned to equipment that is seldom used.
• (j) Factors of 0.9 and 1.0 are used where motors operate at full load for an
extended period of time.
• (k) Any standby or duplicate units should be listed and assigned a factor of
zero unless they are continuously idling. The primary unit should be
assigned an appropriate factor, e.g., Steering pump #1, d.f.=0.9; Steering
pump #2, d.f.=0.0 (Stby).
• (1) The development of standard load factors for given classes of vessels is
encouraged, as time and experience permit.
• (m) Large equipment -- unusually large loads, as compared to the
generating capacity -- should be assigned appropriate factors assuming that
other non-essential loads are not operated simultaneously.
The load analysis documents
• n) The load analysis should show that the generating plant is adequate to simultaneously carry
the loads vital to the survival of the vessel in an emergency such as fire or flooding. These
loads should include:
• (i) Steering;
• (ii) Vital propulsion auxiliaries;
• (iii) Ventilation;
• (iv) Communications;
• (v) Fire pumps;
• (vi) Alarms;
• (vii) Bilge pumps;
• (viii) Emergency lighting;
• (ix) Radar; and
• (z) Controls.
• (o) For unmanned machinery spaces, remotely operated emergency loads, such as bridge
started fire pumps should be assigned a load factor of 1.0.
• (p) Automatically started equipment should be provided a load factor of 1.0 without regard for
spinning reserve.
• (q) Special functional operations of the vessel, such as underway replenishment (a Military
Sealift Command (MSC) Ship), dredging (a hopper dredge), and at-rig offloading (an offshore
supply vessel) do not require one generator in reserve. Normal at sea operations such as cargo
cooling (refrigerated ships) and liquid cargo recirculation (offshore supply vessels) do require
one ship's service generator in reserve.
Electric Generating Capacity
To simplify, these calculations help in determining the needed service factor
for different kind of equipments and usage:
• Service Factor, fs = 24 hour average operating load
• Rated load
• For motor driven auxiliaries;
• fs = operating BHP x No of hours in use per day
• Motor rated BHP 24
• Operating load in KW
• (24 hours average) = 0.746 x fs x (motor rated BHP) x (no. of unit
operating)
• (motor efficiency)
• For lighting, galley, heaters, electronics gears, etc
• fs = operating KW x No. of hours in use per day
• rated KW 24
Load Identification
Tables are divided into several categories where each category consists of:
• all the equipment which needs electricity in its region:
• Lightening
• Navigaton
• Propultion
• Auxiliary

Which are accounted for under:


• the quantity,
• electrical load,
• voltage
• and even the service factor are included inside the table for easier analysis
and calculation.
Lighting
• In designing the electrical system for this ship,
choosing the right illumination for the ship is also
considered as one of the electrical designer’s job.
• From the given load identification, the type of
lighting varies from places and tasks.
• Usually, navigational lights use a higher power type
of light compared to the one used in cabins or
wheelhouse.
• Thus, it can be seen that the lighting power used by
navigational lights are somewhat 80% higher than the
one used inside the ship.
Lighting
• When choosing the illumination levels for any particular area, a few things
should be taken into consideration such as:
• The installed lighting must provide a good illumination to ensure the safety
of personnel, where machinery spaces should be well and adequately lit.
Lighting should also be provided for escape routes and lifeboat
embarkation area.
• The chosen lighting system must provide an adequate illumination for tasks
required in that particular area.
• If possible, the lighting system must assist in the creation of an
aesthetically pleasing environment which is very vital in accommodation
and communal areas such as galley
• statutory regulations required that emergency lighting to be embodied in
the general system which cover crews areas, alleyways, cabins, stairways
and exist which will surely facilitate escape during emergency.
• Lighting are required be in :Lifeboat embarkation area, CabinsGalley,
Wheelhouse, Engine Room
Generator Sets Determination
This tabled under the following:

Nominal W
Appliance Factor
Appliance W

After the load identification and generating power calculations, if the


power needed by the ship is around 28KW only. A 30KW generator is
considered to be the best choice since it has the necessary power
needed plus an extra 10%.

Generator in general are usually sold in power of 5 meaning that it is easier to


find a generator which produce 30KW instead of 28KW or 27.9KW
making the 30KW more ideal choice for this ship.
Generator Sets Determination
• After installing the needed generators, a switchboard is needed
to provide for the control, protection paralleling or separating
the service of generators. Bear in mind that for the installation
of switchboard it needed to be:
• At dry area and accessible from both front and rear
• Should be located as far inboard as possible
• An adequate amount or front and rear space for accessibility in
term of operation and maintenance.
• Close as possible with the associated generators sets.
• Able to operate satisfactorily at 300 angle from any direction.