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SENORO GAS DEVELOPMENT PROJECT CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM

Monthly Project Forum Electrical Discipline

February 17, 2011

INTRODUCTION OF CATHODIC PROTECTION WHAT IS CATHODIC PROTECTION


Cathodic Protection is a technique to reduce the corrosion rate of a metal surface by making it the cathode of an electrochemical cell. (In this presentation, is limited to steel pipe installed underground) Two Kind of Cathodic Protection, - Sacrificial Anode

- Impress Current

INTRODUCTION OF CATHODIC PROTECTION Why Use Cathodic Protection?


Cathodic Protection is presented to reduce corrosion rate in metal surface especially that installed underground. Cathodic Protection system is usually as secondary protection against corrosion in metal surface installation. The primary protection is coating system. The reason that placed cathodic protection as secondary protection system against corrosion is the coating of steel pipe is contain holiday (or insulation leakage), and using cathodic protection as primary protection is usually uneconomical, especially in tropical climate.

INTRODUCTION OF CATHODIC PROTECTION

INTRODUCTION OF CATHODIC PROTECTION


WHEN TO USING SACRIFICIAL ANODE OR IMPRESSED CURRENT CATHODIC PROTECTION
SACRIFICIAL ANODE : 1. Sacrificial or Galvanic anodes are generally used in cases where relatively small amounts of current are required (typically less than 1 A) and areas where soil resistivity is low enough (typically less than 10,000 ohm-cm) to permit obtaining the desired current with a reasonable number of anodes. 2. Sacrificial or Galvanic anodes usually installed in for stand alone small equipment that not economically if installed with impressed current.

INTRODUCTION OF CATHODIC PROTECTION


WHEN TO USING SACRIFICIAL ANODE OR IMPRESSED CURRENT CATHODIC PROTECTION
IMPRESSED CURRENT: 1. Impressed Current Cathodic Protection are generally used in cases where amounts of current are big (typically more than 1 A). 2. Economical and the applicability of impressed current cathodic protection installation shall be considered.

INTRODUCTION OF CATHODIC PROTECTION


A COMPARISON OF SACRIFICIAL ANODE AND IMPRESSED CURRENT SYSTEMS Sacrificial anodes 1. Easy to install 2. No Electricity Required 3. Low of the risk of over protection 4. Little or No Maintenance Required 5. No operational Cost (Only Routine Check) 6. Current Output is Limited 7. Not Applicable when soil resistivity is High Impress Current 1. Good for Big Structure Installation 2. Applicable for all Soil resistivity Condition 3. Current Protection is easy to control 4. Initial Cost is Low 5. Electricity dependent 6. Operation Cost and Maintenance Required 7. Over Protection Risk

CORROSION WHAT IS CORROSION


Corrosion is degradation of a material through environmental interaction. This definition encompasses all materials, both naturally occurring and man-made and includes plastics, ceramics, and metals.
(PEABODYS CONTROL OF PIPELINE CORROSION BOOK, Page 1)

In this presentation, we will focuses on the corrosion of metals, with emphasis on corrosion of steels installed underground.

CORROSION ELECTROCHEMICAL NATURE OF CORROSION


Corrosion of most common engineering materials at near-ambient temperatures occurs in aqueous (water-containing) environments and is electrochemical in nature . The aqueous environment is also referred to as the electrolyte and, in the case of underground corrosion, is moist soil.

CORROSION ATMOSPHERIC CORROSION


Atmospheric corrosion can be defined as the corrosion of materials exposed to the air and its pollutants, rather than immersed in a liquid . Atmospheric corrosion can further be classified into dry, damp, and wet categories. This chapter deals only with the damp, and wet cases, associated with corrosion in the presence of microscopic, "invisible" electrolyte (or moisture) films and visible electrolyte layers on the surface, respectively.

CORROSION MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION


Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is corrosion resulting from the presence and activities of microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi. Microbiological that cause corrosion in metal can be grouped into - Metal-Oxidizing Bacteria (MOB) - Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB) - Acid-Producing Bacteria (APB) - Metal-Reducing Bacteria (MRB)

PRINCIPE OF CATHODIC PROTECTION


The Principe of Cathodic Protection is to make a protected metal (in this case is Steel Pipe) the cathode of an electrochemical cell. - Two way to make a protected metal as the cathode of electrochemical cell: 1. Connected the negative of DC terminal power source and the positive terminal of DC power is connected to another metal (ground bed). This is an impressed current method 2. Connected to the metal that have more negative potential than protected metal. This is Sacrificial Anode method

PRINCIPE OF CATHODIC PROTECTION Table of Galvanic Potential of Metal

PRINCIPE OF CATHODIC PROTECTION Comparasion of Magnesium and Zinc Anode


MAGNESIUM ANODE - Magnesium anodes has higher nominal corrosion potential than zinc. - Need Less Anode than Zinc for the same protection current - Not Applicable installed in seawater area. - Applicable for soil with resistivity higher than 1500 ohm.cm ZINC ANODE - Zinc anode is less nominal potential corrosion than magnesium. - Required more anode than magnesium for the same protection current - Good application in soil with resistivity bellow 1500 ohm.cm - Applicable in seawater area

PRINCIPE OF CATHODIC PROTECTION Data Required for Cathodic Protection Design

The Size of Structure (Pipe Size) Pipe Coating Soil Resistivity Protection Life Protection Current Requied Anode Type (if Using Sacrificial Anode)

DESIGN OF CATHODIC PROTECTION Soil Resistivity and Corrosion in Steel


Table of soil resistivity and corrosive effect for steel

If the soil resistivity is categorized in noncorrosive environment, the installation of cathodic protection not required

PRINCIPE OF CATHODIC PROTECTION Current required for Protection Total Surface to be Protected, For Pipe = x Diameter of Pipe (M) x Pipe Length (M) Total Current = Current Density x Total Surface to be Protected Current Density of Coating Pipe is Define in ISO 15589-1:2003, Table 1, Shown in Next Slide

DESIGN OF CATHODIC PROTECTION

PRINCIPE OF CATHODIC PROTECTION Formula to Calculated Quantity of Sacrificial Anode


If Sacrificial Anode is Used, The Weight of Sacrificial Anode can be calculate (Mass of Required Pure Anode in Kg)

= (Current Protection x Design Life)/(Current Capacity Anode for Each Kg x Utilization)

GROUND BED DESIGN The ground bed is the term of installing anode to supply the structure being protected with adequate current for cathodic polarization to occur. Anode configuration can be describes as distribution or remote.

GROUND BED DESIGN The ground beds of an impressed-current CP system shall be of the deep-well or shallow type and shall be designed and located so as to satisfy the following : a) The mass and material quality shall be suitable for the specified design life of the CP system. b) The resistance to remote earth of each groundbed shall allow the maximum predicted current demand to be met at no more than 70 % of the voltage capacity of the d.c. source during the design life of the CP system. The Calculation shall be carried out for the unused anode bed. c) Harmful interference on neighbouring buried structures shall be avoided.

GROUND BED DESIGN Distributed configuration (Shallow Type) uses anodes located at relatively close interval along structure. The anodes are spaced close together and close to the structure so as to distribute the current evenly over the surface of the structure and to raise the potential of the earth adjacent to the structure

GROUND BED DESIGN A remote configuration uses anodes placed at location considered electrically remote from the structure. Remote anode are used for coated structure where only holiday in the coating are protected by CP System and for structures that are electrically isolated from other structures.

EFFECT OF OVER PROTECTION


Excessive amounts of Cathodic Protection current to a coated pipeline may damage the coating. This process is called cathodic disbondment. The current flow promotes water and ion migration through the coating and an increase in the electrolyte pH at the pipe surface. Usually this overprotection is happened in impressed current (when the controller is broken or improper setting)
The disbondment of coating caused by Overprotection

STRAY CURRENT
Cathodic protection, especially impressed current will develop stray current to the environment, it will cause a corrosion into steel material around protected structure. Stray current is also generated by other DC source (like Electric Train Railway) that may influence cathodic protection even to fail of protect corrosion.

STRAY CURRENT MITIGATION


1. Drainage Bonds, is connecting a resistance bond between the two pipelines with the amount of resistance in the bond adjusted to drain just enough current from the affected line to eliminate the damaging condition, or connected the interfere pipe to negative terminal of DC source of railway system

Drainage Bonds for stray current from railway

STRAY CURRENT MITIGATION


Drain bond for stray current between 2 pipe

STRAY CURRENT MITIGATION


2. Additional Coating system for bare or poor coating pipe that interfere with CP protected pipe

STRAY CURRENT MITIGATION


3. Installed additional sacrificial Anode in area that possible damage. The area that have possibility of damage will be identified by field test.

STRAY CURRENT MITIGATION


4. Installation of Electrical Shield

THE END