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Summary writing:

1. Read the question carefully. Ask yourself: What am I required to summarise? 2. Mark the first and last lines of the passage you are asked to refer to. 3. Select information that is relevant to your answer.
Underline the relevant lines or ideas as you read the text. Always ask yourself: Is this... (Example: Is this a reason tigers have become extinct? or Is this a measure that should be implemented?

4. Look through the lines/ideas you have underlined.

Sometimes an idea is repeated (paraphrasing) Ask yourself, is this a repetition?

Summary writing:
5. Summarise these ideas.
combine ideas - combining phrases or sentences, paraphrase ideas/sentences. make sure complete sentences cannot paraphrase replace the words (without affecting meaning) Example: pronoun to replace a noun.

6. Weak student
copy the complete sentence.

not lose marks (content /language)

7. Begin
with the 10 words given Remember! three dots after the tenth word - complete the sentence with some relevant information from the text.

5. Organise the ideas/points as in the text. Do not waste time trying to rearrange ideas. 6. Stick to to the word limit.
more - no marks. Less - lack content.

7. Pay attention to the tense (and sometimes pronoun) used in the given 10 words. 8. One paragraph.


Narrative Descriptive Factual Argumentative Reflective

Tips on Writing Narrative Compositions
1. Suitable introduction.
2. Introduce your characters. 3. Provide a setting and start the story. 4. lively and interesting characters.(3-4 only)- main character and the minor characters. 5. Plot (exposition, rising action, conflict, climax, falling action, resolution) 6. Make your story realistic. You can do this by one of the following methods:
Give actual names of places, roads, etc Use dialogues Give your story a time frame. Bring in actual events, for example, Merdeka Day, the SEA Games, etc

Some Types of Opening

Describe the background to your story
This sets things off in a straightforward manner; establishing clearly your characters and situation. Example: There was once a poet who spent all his days shut up in his dark and shabby rented room on top of a coffin shop.

Describe the setting

Describing the setting will create the mood for your story. Example: Towards two oclock, the huge theatre was thronged floor gallery, boxes and stage were all crowded. So many people were gathered in front of the box offices that the management had to telephone the police, fearing a riot.

Use direct speech

This can be a lively way to begin, especially if your character says something that grabs attention. Example : May God wipe out my whole family if I am lying! she whispered, raising hand in oath.

Use sounds
Using words which convey sounds is an easy way to start on a dramatic note. Example : Plop! The lead at the end of the fishing line dropped into the sea.

How do I write a narrative essay for the exam?

ACTION PLAN: (1 hour) A. Planning = 15 minutes B. Writing = 35 minutes C. Checking = 10 minutes
(This plan is for those who are quite weak in English. For those who are proficient, you may only need 10 minutes for planning)

Lets say you have chosen topic - Write a story ending with, I shall never forget this day for the rest of my life. 1. Read the question carefully and underline important phrases. Pay particular attention to the ending. 2. Brainstorm for ideas and jot down notes. For exam purposes, the simplest way is to divide it into three parts: i. ii. iii.


Linkers and phrases - link the events to move your story Example: (chronological order.) a. I went into the restaurant. It was very dark. I will never forget .. A few minutes later. Suddenly, When the disaster happened, ..
Sensory details - to reveal the events and involved the reader

b. I walked into the restaurant c. I sauntered into the restaurant. a - merely states that I went into the restaurant b- little more information-how I went into the restaurant c - more specific word (clearly) the idea of how I went into the restaurant Sentence c. allows the reader to see what I am doing. sauntered = to stroll - image of a person walking slowly into the restaurant. Thus, sentence c. is more effective in narrative and descriptive writing.

Read your essay once through and check for the following things:
Is the spelling accurate? Is the punctuation appropriate? Did you use too many commas in a sentence? Did you vary the sentence structure? Are your sentences too long? Does one thought follow the next in a logical order? Did you stick to the topic? Did you use words so that your reader could experience the incident? Did you use the appropriate tense of the verb throughout? Make any corrections neatly.

Describing People
select only the significant details. Example: Write about a person you admire
Introduction - who the person is - how you know the person Body - physical description character/personality - habits important incidents relationship with you and others - why you admire him/her Conclusion - what the person stands for - what the person means to you

Describing Place
Pay attention to the following aspects :
Type of place Location Distance Attractions Facilities/Amenities Accommodation

When you describe scenes, pay attention to sensory description.

5 senses (Sounds, Smell, Touch, Taste, Sight)

Main purpose - to inform. You must have accurate information about the topic being discussed. Some examples of factual topics:
Pollution causes and effects Tuition reasons for its popularity Tourism how to promote it Deforestation causes and effects E-learning benefits Dental care importance Smoking health effects Mobile phones health hazards

requires you to develop or justify a given argument or to put forward a particular point of view An argumentative composition requires you to do one of the following :
take one side of an argument and present your stand clearly put forward your argument for and against and then make a stand

express your personal thoughts, opinions feelings you need to have a good command of the language which will enable you to express yourself clearly Examples of Reflective essays:
My dream house Things I treasure My ideal husband of wife Memories The qualities I would look for in a friend My greatest problem

Writing Better Paragraph

What is a paragraph?
A paragraph can be divided into three different sections: Topic Sentence - beginning of the paragraph, Body Closing

Topic Sentence
tells you what the paragraph is going to be about how it relates to the subject of the essay and the previous paragraph.

support the topic of the paragraph
Supporting details Elaboration

completes the idea expressed in the paragraph. It should also set up a connection to the next paragraph.

A good paragraph has only one main idea and one or two supporting details.
First and foremost, I would buy a house for my parents, preferably a bungalow, in a quiet town. I would equip the house with the latest technology so that it would be a smart home. My mother would have a state-of-the-art kitchen as she loves cooking. There would also be a robot to clean and vacuum the house. I will certainly make sure

that my family is comfortably settled in this house.

How to elaborate or add supporting details?

To support a topic sentence, consider some of these possible ways:
Add examples Supply further details or explanation Tell a story that illustrates the point you're making Discuss a process Compare and contrast

Most word processing software gives you several options for printing. You can print a copy or several copies of the same document with different fonts. Besides that, you can also print a range of pages. What is more, you can even preview a document before printing it out. You can finally say goodbye to the good old typewriter Topic sentence: word processing software several options for printing. Body sentences (Supporting details): print a copy, several copies, different fonts, a range of pages, preview. Note that I have given examples and explanation to support my main idea. Closing sentence: I end the paragraph by implying that now that you have the software, you can say goodbye to the typewriter.

Choice of words
Donts tired words like beautiful or nice Dos Use: magnificent, breathtaking, inspiring, fantastic, and so on.

Ever since Mr. Tan came into my class, he transformed it, changing it so that it was altogether different from what it has been like before.
unheard of or too bombastic Example: Chin Yit, a student from Pahang wrote to ask whether using beatiful words will gain her more marks. She had taken these words from a thesaurus. Her teacher is right. She will not gain more marks as she is testing the examiner and boring her readers. (propitious, bullient, affray, edacious)

Mr. Tan transformed my class. (Here, give examples of how he did it.)

(Favourable , cheerful, scuffle, fight, voracious)