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1 Introduction
The evaluation of shaly formation is considered as one

of difficult tasks as it causes many problems :

The shale affects the evaluation of the reservoir

parameters as porosity and water saturation .

Although several models and researches have been

made for studying shaly formations , most of them are not fully understood or considered to be illusive .


The presence of shale in sand tend to reduce the true

resistivity(RT) ,of the hydrocarbon bearing zones and to increase the value of Ro .
Quantitatively a non representative high (Sw) value is

calculated if clean formation models are used .the potential of the zone is then underestimated or completely masked .
High Vsh might encumber visual detection of

hydrocarbon zones .

The interpretation problem in shaly formations is in calculating

porosity and saturation values free from shale effects.

Because the shale effect depends on the shale content ,the estimation

of Vsh is of prime importance

Qualitatively Vsh indicates whether the formations can be

considered clean or shaly to determine model or approach that we will use in interpretation
Quantitatively VSh is used to estimate the shale effect on log

responses and if needed ,to correct them to clean formation responses.

Shale effect all logging tools to some degree ,there are numerous

methods have been developed to indicate presence and estimate shale content involving SP ,gamma ray and porosity logs

1.2 shale content from SP Log

Vsh from SP log can be calculated by

Epsp is the shale response in the shaly zone of interest ESSP is the shale response in an adjacent clean ,thick zone ,contains same water salinity as the zone of interest Restriction of this method : 1. SP is of good quality 2. Other shale indicators are absent

Factors affect estimation of Vsh from SP log : 1) salinity changes 2) Rw/RMF contrast 3) Hydrocarbon content

N.B. The presence of hydrocarbon in a formation reduces the reading of the SP log which result in a higher shale content


1.3 Shale Content From the Gamma Ray Log

The shale volume is related to a shale index ,ISh :

Empirical relationships were used to determine VSh

For tertiary rocks ,the Larionov equation is used : The Stieber equation is The clavier et al equation is :

For older rocks , the larionov Equation is :

An empirical equation can be developed specifically

for a formation or geologic unit of interest .


Experience have shown that gamma ray index

approach provides a reasonable estimate for VSh provided that the formation doesn't contain radioactive minerals (uranium) .
When uranium is present we should use gamma ray

spectral log is recommended .