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Reaming and Broaching

Session 9

Hand Cutting Tools


Reamers
Used to bring hole to size and produce good finish

Broaches
Used with arbor press to produce special shapes in workpiece Multi-tooth tool forced through hole

Lapping
Where very fine abrasive powder, embedded in tool is used to remove minute amounts of material from surface
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Solid Hand Reamer


Made of carbon steel or high-speed steel Available in inch sizes from .125 - 1.500 inch
Metric from 1 26 mm in diameter

Non-adjustable and may have straight or helical flutes Should not be used on work with keyway or any other interruption

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Expansion Hand Reamer


Designed to permit adjustment of approximately .006 in. above nominal diameter Hollow and has slots along length of cutting section Tapered threaded plug fitted into end of reamer provides for limited expansion Cutting end of reamer ground to slight taper

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Adjustable Hand Reamer


Has tapered slots along entire length of body Inner edges of cutting blades have taper so blades remain parallel for any settings Adjusted by upper and lower adjusting nuts Blades have adjustment range of 1/32 in. on smaller reamers to 5/16 in. on larger ones Manufactured in sizes to 3 in. in diameter

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Taper Reamer
Used to finish tapered holes accurately and smoothly Made with either spiral or straight teeth Roughing reamer
Nicks ground at intervals along teeth Used for more rapid removal of surplus metal

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Finishing Taper Reamer


Used after roughing reamer to finish hole smoothly and to size Either straight or left-hand spiral flutes Designed to remove only small amount of metal (about .010 in from hole) Do not clear themselves readily

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Reaming Precautions
1. Never turn reamer backward (counterclockwise), it will dull teeth 2. Use cutting lubricant where required 3. Always use helical-fluted reamer in hole that has keyway or oil groove cut in it 4. Never attempt to remove too much material (maximum = .010 in.) 5. Frequently clear taper reamer and hole of chips
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Reaming a Hole
1. Check size of drilled hole (.004-.005 in. smaller than finished hole size) 2. Place end of reamer in hole and place tap wrench on square end of reamer 3. Rotate reamer clockwise to align with hole 4. Check reamer for squareness with work

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Reaming a Hole
5. Brush cutting fluid over end of reamer 6. Rotate reamer slowly clockwise and apply downward pressure 7. When finished, clean hole and check with gage for correct size.

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Broaching
Process in which special tapered multitoothed cutter forced through an opening or along outside piece of work to enlarge or change shape of hole First used for internal shapes (keyways, splines) Now used for external shapes

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Broaching
Cutting action performed by series of successive teeth
Each tooth protrudes .003 in. farther than preceding tooth Last three teeth same depth and provide finish cut

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Advantages of Broaching
1. Machining almost any irregular shape is possible 2. Process usually in one pass 3. Roughing and finishing cuts combined 4. Variety of forms, internal or external, may be cut and entire width of surface may be machined
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Broaching Keyways
Keyways may be cut by hand quickly and accurately by means of broach set and arbor press Broach set covers wide range of keyways Equipment necessary to cut keyway
Bushing to suit hole size Broach size of keyway to be cut Shims to increase depth of cut of broach
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Cutting a Keyway With a Broach


1. Determine keyway size required 2. Select proper broach set 3. Place workpiece on arbor press
Use an opening on base smaller than opening in work so bushing properly supported

4. Insert bushing and broach into opening


Apply cutting fluid if workpiece is steel
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Cutting a Keyway With a Broach


5. Check broach to be sure that it has started squarely in hole 6. Press broach through workpiece using arbor press
Maintain constant pressure on arborpress handle

7. Remove broach, insert one shim and press broach through hole
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Cutting a Keyway With a Broach


8. Insert second shim and third shim if required, and press broach through again
This cuts keyway to proper depth

9. Remove bushing, broach, and shims 10. When finished, check broached keyway for size with appropriate keystock
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Lapping

Abrading process used to remove minute amounts of metal from surface Reasons for lapping
Increase wear life of part Improve accuracy and surface finish Improve surface flatness Provide better seals and eliminate need for gaskets

Intended to remove only about .0005 in.


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Lapping Abrasives
Natural and artificial abrasives used Flour of emery and fine powders made of silicon carbide or aluminum oxide used extensively For rough lapping, abrasive should be no coarser than 150 grit Fine powders run up to 600 grit Fine work uses diamond dust in paste form
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Flat Laps
Close-grained cast iron laps used for flat surfaces Roughing operation
Lapping plate scored with narrow grooves .500 in. apart both lengthwise and crosswise to form square or diamond

Finish lapping done on smooth cast-iron plate


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Internal Laps
Holes accurately finished to size and smoothness by lapping Made of brass, copper, or lead Three types
Lead Internal Adjustable

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Lead Lap
Made by pouring lead around tapered mandrel that has groove along length Turned to running fit into hole
Sometimes slit on outside to trap loose abrasive

Adjust by lightly tapping large end of mandrel with soft block

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Internal Lap
May be made of copper, brass or cast iron Threaded-taper plug fits into end of lap
Slit for almost its entire length Lap diameter may be adjusted by threaded-taper plug

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Adjustable Lap
May be made from copper or brass Split for almost full length, but both ends remain solid Slight adjustment provided by means of two setscrew in center section

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External Laps
Used to finish outside of cylindrical work pieces Made of cast iron or may have split brass bushing mounted inside by setscrew Must be some provision for adjusting lap

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