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The study of Earth and all of it's properties such as origin, structure and physical phenomena that take place on Earth. The branch of science dealing with the foundation of the earth and its atmosphere.

The Earth
Earth is the third planet from the Sun, and the densest and fifthlargest of the eight planets in the Solar System. It is also the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets. It is sometimes referred to as the world or the Blue Planet.

Solid Earth Geology Seismology Paleontology Geomorphology Mineralogy Volcanology

Liquid Earth Oceanography Hydrology Gaseous Earth Meteorology Space Astronomy

The study of the solid matter that makes up Earth. Anything that is solid, like rocks, minerals, mountains, and canyons. Divided into two broad areas;
Physical Geology - examines the materials composing Earth and seeks to understand processes that operate beneath and upon its surface. Historical Geology seeks an understanding of the origin of Earth and the development of the planet through its 4.6 billion year history.

Many processes such as landslides, earthquakes, floods and volcanic eruptions can be hazardous to people. Geologists work to understand these processes well enough to avoid building important structures where they might be damaged. If geologists can prepare maps of areas that have flooded in the past they can prepare maps of areas that might be flooded in the future. These maps can be used to guide the development of communities and determine where flood protection or flood insurance is needed.

People use earth materials every day. They use oil that is produced from wells, metals that are produced from mines, and water that has been drawn from streams or from underground. Geologists conduct studies that locate rocks that contain important metals, plan the mines that produce them and the methods used to remove the metals from the rocks. They do similar work to locate and produce oil, natural gas and ground water.

Many geologists are working to learn about the past climates of earth and how they have changed across time. This historical geology news information is valuable to understand how our current climate is changing and what the results might be.

The study of earthquakes and seismic waves that move through and around the earth. Seismology is a diverse science that allows for the study of inaccessible regions of Earth's interior, from crust and lithosphere to the innermost core. A seismologist is a scientist who studies earthquakes and seismic waves.

The study of what fossils tell us about the ecologies of the past, about evolution, and about our place, as humans, in the world. Paleontology incorporates knowledge from biology, geology, ecology, anthropology, archaeology, and even computer science to understand the processes that have led to the origination and eventual destruction of the different types of organisms since life arose.

Throughout human history, fossils have been used, studied, and understood in different ways. Early civilizations used fossils for decorative or religious purposes, but did not always understand where they came from. From the Middle Ages until the early 1700s, fossils were widely regarded as works of the devil or of a higher power. Many people believed the remains had special curative or destructive powers. Many scholars also believed that fossils were remains left by Noah's floodand other biblical disasters.

The formal science of paleontologyfossil collection and descriptionbegan in the 1700s, a period of time known as the Age of Enlightenment. Scientists began to describe and map rock formations and classify fossils. Later that century, the works of Charles Lyell and Charles Darwin strongly influenced how society understood the history of Earth and its organisms.

The scientific study of the surface of a planet and those processes responsible for forming it. They may also study current data to better predict how landforms might change in the future and to understand how people can help maintain current features. This allows scientists to anticipate changes in the general structure of the earth.

During the early 1900s, the study of regional-scale geomorphology was termed "physiography". Unfortunately, physiography later was considered to be a contraction of "physical" and "geography", and therefore synonymous with physical geography, and the concept became embroiled in controversy surrounding the appropriate concerns of that discipline. Some geomorphologists held to a geological basis for physiography and emphasized a concept of physiographic regions while a conflicting trend among geographers was to equate physiography with "pure morphology," separated from its geological heritage. During theWorld War II, the emergence of process, climatic, and quantitative studies led to a preference by many Earth scientists for the term "geomorphology" in order to suggest an analytical approach to landscapes rather than a descriptive one.

A branch of the earth sciences that is concerned with studying minerals and their physical and chemical properties.

The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle was one of the first people to theorize extensively about the origins and properties of minerals. His ideas were new and advanced for the time, but he and his contemporaries were largely incorrect in their assumptions. There are over 4,000 different types of minerals known to exist. Most of these are classified as rare or extremely rare, and only about 150 are present in large amounts. Another 50 to 100 are found only occasionally. Minerals not only comprise much of the earth's crust, but many are essential to good health. Many types also provide us with important building materials, and the components for some kinds of machinery.

The study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological, geophysical and geochemical phenomena.

The Greeks and Romans believed the smoke and lava fragments represented the work of the mythical blacksmith "Vulcan," the god of fire. The eruption of Mount Vesuvius, which destroyed the city of Pompeii, occurred in 79 AD. The eruption cemented Mount Vesuvius' place in history as one of the most destructive volcanoes in history and started the science, with the detailed description by Pliny the Younger. The early history of volcanology was dependent on eyewitness accounts and written history of the time.

Also known as oceanology and marine science. Study of the composition and movements of sea water, as well as coastal processes, seafloor topography, and marine life More than 70% of the Earth's surface is covered with water. Most of that water is found in the oceans.

Observations on tides were recorded by Aristotle and Strabo. Franklin measured water temperatures during several Atlantic crossings and correctly explained the Gulf Stream's cause. Sir James Clark Ross took the first modern sounding in deep sea in 1840, and Charles Darwin published a paper on reefs and the formation of atolls as a result of the second voyage of HMS Beagle in 1831-6. Robert FitzRoy published a report in four volumes of the three voyages of the Beagle. In 1841 1842 Edward Forbes undertook dredging in the Aegean Sea that founded marine ecology.

The study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. Subdivided into;
surface hydrology
marine hydrology

The ancient Sinhalese used hydrology to build complex irrigation works in Sri Lanka, also known for invention of the Valve Pit which allowed construction of large reservoirs, anicuts and canals which still function. Marcus Vitruvius, in the first century B.C., described a philosophical theory of the hydrologic cycle, in which precipitation falling in the mountains infiltrated the Earth's surface and led to streams and springs in the lowlands.

With adoption of a more scientific approach, Leonardo da Vinci and Bernard Palissy independently reached an accurate representation of the hydrologic cycle. It was not until the 17th century that hydrologic variables began to be quantified. Perrault showed that rainfall was sufficient to account for flow of the Seine. Marriotte combined velocity and river cross-section measurements to obtain discharge, again in the Seine. Halley showed that the evaporation from the Mediterranean Sea was sufficient to account for the outflow of rivers flowing into the sea.

It is the scientific observation and study of the dynamics of atmosphere so that weather can be accurately forecasted.

The word Meteorology was coined from a research book called Meteorologica which was written by Aristotle, a Greek scientist and philosopher. Weather forecasting was practiced and weather predicting methods were based on observing surrounding elements. 15th Century- instruments for measuring wind power, humidity and rain were ivented 17th Century- device to measure temperature was invented by Galileo Galilei as well as the invention of barometer by Evangelista Torricelli. 18th century- modern mercury based thermometer was invented by Gabriel Fahrenheit

Mid 1800s- Samuel Morse invented electric telegraph to allow speedy transference of information. 1950's - computers ran first models of the atmosphere 1960's - first meteorological satellites were launched (Tiros I ) 1990's - National Weather Service was modernized

It is the scientific study of the universe and the relationship between Earth and the universe. It focuses on the observation and interpretation of celestial bodies in space.

Early astronomers, in different civilizations, used the observed motion of the stars, the Sun, Moon and planets as the basis for clocks, calendars and a navigational compass. 16th century- Copernicus was the first to explain the motion of planets. 17th century- Modern planetary astronomy began with Johannes Kepler who used Tyro Brahes very accurate measurements of the planetary orbits.

Galileo contributed to the development of astronomy by devising a telescope which he used to discover sunspots on the Sun, rings of Saturn, phases of Venus and craters on the Moon. Newton built on earlier insights with his universal law of motion to perform mechanical calculations and to understand gravity and invented a mathematical tool that he called fluctions, now known as Calculus.