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CORROSION &

Corrosion Types
illustration of essential corrosion basics

some important

Topics
Definition of corrosion Why corrosion is Important Corrosion Electrochemistry Corrosive Environments Types of corrosion Corrosion Control Techniques

Definition of Corrosion
In broad terms, the interaction between a material and its environment that results in a degradation of the physical, mechanical, or even esthetic properties of that material. More specifically, corrosion is usually associated with a change in the oxidation state of a metal, oxide, or semiconductor

Why Corrosion is Important

Economics

Safety
Conservations

Economics of Corrosion

The cost of corrosion in the industrial countries has been estimated to be on the order of 4% of the gross national product
Direct Losses

Replacement of structures or components

Protection against corrosion

Economics of Corrosion
Indirect Losses

Cost of shutdown

Contamination

Loss of product or efficiency

Economics of Corrosion
Source of corrosion-resistant metals

Much of the chromium being used is considered irreplaceable

Engineering systems for service environments require materials that are chemically stable or that can be made chemically stable

Corrosion of metals
CORROSION Of coatings & linings

Of metals
Of polymers, ceramics, etc ...
... Is probably the commonest electrochemical phenomenon encountered in day-to-day life ... or : ... METALLURGY IN REVERSE ...

Metal (in-)stability : Origin of Electrode Potential E

METAL

M atom

M n+ ion

ne Electrons

Nernst : E = E0 + RT/nF * ln [ aox / ared ]

Corrosion mechanism

Fe +
Corrosive environment

2+ Fe

+2

anodic (oxidation) reaction

Reduction reactions
Depending on the nature & components of the environment : acid environment :

2H+ + 2e alkaline or neutral environment :

H2

O2 + 2H2O + 4e-

4OH-

Thermodynamics: E-pH Diagrams

Pourbaix diagrams

Effect of pH
Magnetite (for example) Low pH no oxides form High pH porous Fe(OH)3.xH2O forms pH 10-12 ideal range for carbon steel Different metals require different conditions for uniform corrosion pH is controlled to control uniform corrosion

Kinetics

Polarization curves

Passivating metal

Corrosion Types
Corrosion Types Uniform corrosion

Galvanic corrosion

Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)

Intergranular

Transgranular

Pitting

Crevice Corrosion

Microbiological Corrosion

General (uniform) corrosion


Rusting

Wastage
White

Rust

General (uniform) corrosion


Can be a good or a bad thing Corrosion occurs evenly over the surface

Oxide layers can be very tough


Magnetite Fe3O4

Galvanic corrosion
Corrosion between a noble and less noble metal in the presence of an aggressive medium The more electropositive = cathode, the least electropositive = anode

Galvanic corrosion

(2)

Selective Leaching (Dealloying)

Bimetallic Corrosion

(Oxygen) Concentration Cell

IGA & Sensitization

Mechanisms ...
Weld Decay /

Sensitization & Weld Decay

Mechanism : Cr23C6

Pitting corrosion
Caused

by Chlorides (halides) Passive metals & alloys = susceptible

Mechanism

Crevice corrosion

Accelerated corrosion in a narrow crevice between two parts of a component, ...one of which is made from a metal ...

Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)


(Sudden) fracture of a metal upon exposure to a corrosive environment
Intergranular

... Transgranular ...

Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC)

Mechanisms

Transgranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (TGSCC)

Mechanism (theories)

Corrosion Fatigue

Corrosion Fatigue (2)

Erosion-corrosion

MIC - Microbiologically
Induced Corrosion

Various ways :
- SRBs - Iron-oxidizing - Etc , etc

High-Temperature Corrosion

Oxidation Sulfidation Carburization


.

Atmospheric Corrosion

How to avoid corrosion ?...


Design Material selection Coatings Changing the environment ...