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Ultrasonic Guided Waves for NDE OF WELDED STRUCTURES

an overview by
Krishnan Balasubramaniam Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Head of Centre for Nondestructive Evaluation Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Chennai 600 036 INDIA Tele: 044-445-8588 Email: balas@iitm.ac.in WWW.CNDE-IITM.ORG

Guided Wave Types

Based on Geometry
Surface Waves Plate Waves Cylindrical Waves Rod Waves

Based on Symmetry
Symmetric Anti-symmetric Axi-symmetric Non-axisymmetric

Based on Mode
Torsional Circumferential Longitudinal Shear Horizontal Shear Vertical Flexural

Plate Wave Basics


Anti - Symmetric Mode

Three basic wave mode types :


Shear Horizontal Shear Vertical
Symmetric anti-symmetric

Symmetric Mode

Longitudinal
Symmetric anti-symmetric

Guided Waves Characteristics


Dispersive (group .vs. phase) Contour Following Long Range Propagation Leaky Phenomena Multi-Mode Behavior Mode Specific Displacement and Stress Profiles. Null Zone

Plate Wave Simulation


T R

ANSYS FEM Model. Input impulse at 200 kHz. (2 cycles) at the top left corner. 4 cases displayed. Total Plate Length 12 inchs Total Plate Thickness 0.5 inchs. Defect Height 0.25

Plate Wave Simulation Results Defect Free Rectangular Defect

Corrosion

Crack

partial differential equation for particle motion in a continuous medium is given by


(+) u j,ij + u i,jj + i = i Since in a plate the domain is not infinite we require boundary conditions to solve these equations.

The solution of these two independent equations along with boundary condition, in this case 31 = 33 = 0 x = +- d/2

Rayleighs equations

tan(qh) 4k 2 qp 2 tan( ph) (k q 2 ) 2


tan( qh) ( k 2 q 2 ) 2 tan( ph) 4k 2 qp

for symmetric modes

for anti-symmetric modes

Lamb Waves in a steel plate


Mode Shapes
10 Phase velocity (km/sec)
s0 a1 s1 s2 a2
Top surface

Bottom surface

Propagation direction

a0

Frequency (MHz)

10

Dispersion of Pulses
1 2

Time (usecs)

Phase Velocity Dispersion Curves for Steel Plate


10 Phase velocity (km/s) 8 6 A1 S1

S2

A2

S0

4
A0 2

2 4 Frequency-Thickness (MHz-mm)

Group Velocity Dispersion Curves for Steel Plate


6

S0
Group velocity (km/s) S1

4
SH0 2 A0 0 0 SH1

A1

SH2 4

2 Frequency-Thickness (MHz-mm)

Attenuation Dispersion Curves for Steel Plate Immersed in Water


2000 1500

S1

A2

Att (dB-mm/m)

1000

A0 S2
4.0 6.0

500

S0
0 0.0 2.0

A1

Frequency-Thickness (MHz-mm)

Scholte

Types of Guided Wave Inspection


Short range (<<1m)
Medium range (up to ~5m) Long range (up to 100m)

Guided Wave Applications


Process Monitoring

Viscosity, Density, Level, Temperature


Material Characterization

Stiffness, Density, Visco-elastic, Ply-lay-up


Non-destructive Evaluation

Corrosion, Bond quality, Cracks, .


Data Communication

Dispersion Curves for pipes

Symmetric and Antisymmetric Mode Shapes

L(0,2)

F(1,3)

Guided Wave in Pipes

Corrosion Detection in Pipes

Alleyne et al Rev. of prog in QNDE Vol. 16, 1997

Test achieving 80m one direction range


0.8

Amp (mV)

0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 20 40 60 80

Distance (m)

Corrosion at entrance to sleeved road crossing


1.0 -F4 -F3 -F2 -F1 +F1 +F2 +F3+F4

Amp (mV)

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 -30.0

-20.0

-10.0

0.0

10.0

Distance (m)

corrosion

Guided Wave Systems

Commercial Transducer System

Reflection coefficient for notch over 11% of pipe circumference as function of notch depth

Reflection coefficient from notch 50% of wall thickness deep as function of circumferential extent

Guided Waves in Pipes and Tubes

*Rose et al, Proc of WCNDT 1996

Energy Distributions for Selected Modes

Energy in the head

Energy in the web

Energy in the foot

Prototype System
System electronics User interface

Rail under test

clamping mechanism

transducer

Prototype System

Guided Ultrasonics (Rail) Ltd

Comparison predicted and experimental sensitivity 1


0.8

Experiment Finite eleme nt prediction

Reflection coefficient

0.6 0.4

0.2
0 0 10 20 30 40 50

Cross sectional area loss (%)

NDT by guided waves Inspection of Laser Welds of Tailored Blanks by SH-mode SS0
Probe
Ultrasonic w ave

Weld

Direction of Probe M otion

Probe-Soundfield

Weld Defects

Salzburger

NDT by guided waves Inspection of Laser Welds of Tailored Blanks

Probe

Blank is stationary - Probe is moved by a robot


Salzburger

NDT by guided waves Inspection of Laser Welds of Tailored Blanks by SH-mode SS0 Inspection result
Laser Weld Inspection
Scanning direction

Weld

Pos. 3 on X-ray film

End face

Ultrasonic B-image Microfocus X-ray


Salzburger

Guided Circumferential Waves

AEA Technology

NDT by guided waves In-motion Inspection of the running surface of Railway Wheels by Rayleigh waves
Amplitude RT RT RT

Crack Time of flight Tread in good condition

Ultrasonic A-Scan
Wheelbody
Ultrasonic Surface Wave Tread with defects Amplitude RT E E E RT E E

RT

Ultrasonic surface wave in the tread of the wheel

Time Timeof of flight flight

Probe

Probe

Inspection Principle
Salzburger

ENSURING THE OPERATIONAL RELIABILITY OF RAIL VEHICLES BY NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF WHEEL SETS

Wheel set being tested

Wheel Testing by Guided Waves


Train moving over the probes

Probe 1

Probe 3

A-Scans from each of the four probes


Probe 2 Probe 4

Smart Pipe Concept


SMART PIPES that offer several advantages. This will use Acoustic Emission (AE) as the passive listening device and Guided Waves as the active device to interrogate the pipes for corrosion, cracking, and fatigue damage. The advantages would include reduction in routine inspection, the focus of inspection on regions with high probability of damage, the avoidance of removal of insulation during evaluation, ability to monitor the health of buried pipes, etc. It may be feasible to put-together a group of industries that can participate in defining the requirements. Some new technologies including (a) film based magetostrictive transduction, (b) flexi-sensor patch, (c) RF transmitter for AE data, etc. may be developed as a part of the effort.

Passive and Active Passive AE mode Passive Triggers Active mode Active mode Guided waves

Passive AE Sensor with RF


Band-Pass Filter

Amplifier
Threshold Algorithm RF-Trasmitter

Battery or solar panel operated Self maintenance features

Transducer Array Flexi-Patch


PZT crystal array or GMS film array
Mylar based PCB construction with Adhesive sticker like installation 50-200 kHz Freq 8-16 crystals/transducer

Guided Wave Smart Pipe


Non-dispersive Wave mode Low attenuation wave mode Low Leakage wave mode for embedded portions Controlling Parameters: Input Frequency and Signal BW

Summary
Guided Waves offer a new and effective

technique for evaluation of welded structures. Cost savings due to the long range nature of the technique Increased sensitivity due to multi-mode nature Ability to inspect in-accessible regions Ability to online monitor the welding process.

Inaccessible Pipeline inspection tools (PIGS)

MFL Inspection of gas pipelines


Defect

Differential Probe

Tube

Defect Characterization

MFL signal

Prediction with 1 resolution

Defect profile

Prediction with 2 resolutions

Defect Defect Geometry Geometry -- D: D: 50%, 50%, L: L: 3, 3, W: W: 3 3