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# INDUSTRIAL TRAINING PRESENTATION

MULTI-PURPOSE OP-AMPS

Submitted by: Karan Gogna
College Roll No:14190
Electronics and Communication Engineering(IIIrd year)
Dronacharya College of Engineering,Gurgaon

Presentation Outline
Company Profile
Op-Amps
Single Ended-Input
Distortions
Op-Amp Operations
Conclusion
References
Company Profile
The company I did my Summer Training Cum
Internship from GMG Engineers and
Contractors Pvt. Ltd, is a private Electronics
and Electrical based firm that specializes in
Transformers, manufacture of ICs and PCB
Designing. All the various projects undertaken
by the firm aim at power factor improvement
techniques by promoting energy and fuel
conservation.
MY PROFILE
TRAINEE
Work Fields
Op-Amps
PCBs
Transformers
Other linear electric circuits
Op-Amps
Introduction
Types
Applications
Single-Ended Input
+

Vo
~
Vi
+

Vo
~
Vi
+ terminal : Source
terminal : Ground
0
o
phase change
+ terminal : Ground
terminal : Source
180
o
phase change

Distortion
Vd
+

Vo
+Vcc=+5V
Vcc=5V
0
+5V
5V
The output voltage never excess the DC voltage
supply of the Op-Amp
Common-Mode Operation
+

Vo
Vi
~
Same voltage source is applied
at both terminals
Ideally, two input are equally
amplified
Output voltage is ideally zero
due to differential voltage is
zero
Practically, a small output
signal can still be measured

Note for differential circuits:
Opposite inputs : highly amplified
Common inputs : slightly amplified
Common-Mode Rejection
Operational Amplifier
Noninverting Amplifier
(1) Kirchhoff node equation at V
+

yields,

(2) Kirchhoff node equation at V

yields,

(3) Setting V
+
= V

yields

or
+
Vin
Vo

Ra
Rf
i
V V =
+
0
0
=

f
o
a
R
V V
R
V
0 =

+
f
o i
a
i
R
V V
R
V
a
f
i
o
R
R
V
V
+ =1
Operational Amplifier
+

vi
Ra
vo
v-
v+
Rf
+

vi
Ra
vo
v-
v+
Rf
R2
R1
+

vi
vo
v-
v+
Rf
+

vi
vo
v-
v+
Rf
R2
R1
Noninverting amplifier Noninverting input with voltage divider
i
a
f
o
v
R R
R
R
R
v ) )( 1 (
2 1
2
+
+ =
Voltage follower
i o
v v =
i
a
f
o
v
R
R
v ) 1 ( + =
Less than unity gain
i o
v
R R
R
v
2 1
2
+
=
Operational Amplifier
Inverting Amplifier
(1) Kirchhoff node equation at V
+

yields,

(2) Kirchhoff node equation at V

yields,

(3) Setting V
+
= V

yields

0 =
+
V
0
_
=

f
o
a
in
R
V V
R
V V
a
f
in
o
R
R
V
V

=
Notice: The closed-loop gain V
o
/V
in
is
dependent upon the ratio of two resistors,
and is independent of the open-loop gain.
This is caused by the use of feedback
output voltage to subtract from the input
voltage.
+

~
Rf
Ra
Vin
Vo
Operational Amplifier
Multiple Inputs
(1) Kirchhoff node equation at V
+

yields,

(2) Kirchhoff node equation at V

yields,

(3) Setting V
+
= V

yields

0 =
+
V
0
_
=

c
c
b
b
a
a
f
o
R
V V
R
V V
R
V V
R
V V

=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
c
a j
j
j
f
c
c
b
b
a
a
f o
R
V
R
R
V
R
V
R
V
R V
+

Rf
Va
Vo
Rb
Ra
Rc
Vb
Vc
Operational Amplifier
Inverting Integrator
Now replace resistors R
a
and R
f
by complex
components Z
a
and Z
f
, respectively,
therefore

Supposing
(i) The feedback component is a capacitor C,
i.e.,

(ii) The input component is a resistor R, Z
a
= R
Therefore, the closed-loop gain (V
o
/V
in
) become:

where
What happens if Z
a
= 1/jeC whereas, Z
f
= R?
Inverting differentiator
in
a
f
o
V
Z
Z
V

=
C j
Z
f
e
1
=
}

= dt t v
RC
t v
i o
) (
1
) (
t j
i i
e V t v
e
= ) (
+

~
Zf
Za
Vin
Vo
+

~
R
Vin
Vo
C
Ref:080114HKN Operational Amplifier
Op-Amp Integrator
Example:

(a) Determine the rate of change
of the output voltage.

(b) Draw the output waveform.
Solution:
+

R
Vo
Vi
0
+5V
10 kO
0.01F
C
Vo(max)=10 V
100s
(a) Rate of change of the output voltage
s mV/
F k
V

50
) 01 . 0 )( 10 (
5
=
O
= =
A
A
RC
V
t
V
i o
(b) In 100 s, the voltage decrease
V s s mV/ 5 ) 100 )( 50 ( = = A
o
V
0
+5V
0
-5V
-10V
Vi
Vo
Operational Amplifier
Op-Amp Differentiator
RC
dt
dV
v
i
o
|
.
|

\
|
=
+

R
C
Vo
Vi
0
to t1 t2
0
to t1 t2
Conclusion
In the end I would like to conlude by saying
this Summer training cum Internship that I got
to do helped me gain a lot of knowledge and
practical experience as well as exposure in
various conceps in electronics, what I believe
would play a very imperative role in the
subjects and concepts that I will be studying in
the subsequent semester too.
References
I would like to thank the staff @GMG Engineers and
Contractors for their keen support and guidance in every
milestone of my internship experience.
Following websites were referred for the compilation of
the presentation:-
1. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operational_Amplifiers
2. Op-AMP_Guide Vol 2010, 11, 12, 13