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Bacteria Morphology & Classification

II MBBS
Dr Ekta Chourasia Lecturer, Microbiology

Learning Objectives

After completing this section you should be able to perform the following objectives:

Define a prokaryotic cell and list the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell Describe the structure of a bacterial cell and explain the function of its components Explain why cell wall forms the basis for classification of bacteria Explain the structural modifications (flagella) of the cell and their functional importance
Dr Ekta Chourasia

07.09.08

Introduction:

Microorganisms several classes of living beings Based on the organization of their cellular structures, all living cells can be divided into two groups: eukaryotic and prokaryotic

Eukaryotic cell types - Animals, plants, fungi, protozoans, and algae Prokaryotic cell types - bacteria & blue green algae

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Schematic of typical animal (eukaryotic) cell, showing subcellular components. Organelles: (1) nucleolus (2) nucleus (3) ribosome (4) vesicle (5) rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (6) Golgi apparatus (7) Cytoskeleton (8) smooth ER (9) mitochondria (10) vacuole (11) cytoplasm (12) lysosome (13) centrioles
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Dr Ekta Chourasia

Prokaryotic Cells

much smaller (microns) and more simple than eukaryotes prokaryotes are molecules surrounded by a membrane and cell wall. they lack a true nucleus and dont have membrane bound organelles like mitochondria, etc.

large surface-to-volume ratio : nutrients can easily and rapidly reach any part of the cells interior
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Size of Bacteria

Unit of measurement in bacteriology is the micron (micrometre, m) Bacteria of medical importance


0.2 1.5 m in diameter 3 5 m in length

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Shape of Bacteria

Cocci spherical/ oval shaped major groups Bacilli rod shaped Vibrios comma shaped Spirilla rigid spiral forms Spirochetes flexible spiral forms Actinomycetes branching filamentous bacteria Mycoplasmas lack cell wall
Dr Ekta Chourasia

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Arrangement of bacteria: Cocci


Coccus

Cocci in pair Diplococcus Tetrad groups of four

Cocci in chain - Streptococci

Cocci in cluster - Staphylococci


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Sarcina groups of eight

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Arrangement of bacteria: Bacilli

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Other shapes of bacteria

Comma shaped

Spirilla

Spirochetes

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Anatomy of a Bacterial Cell

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Anatomy of A Bacterial Cell

Outer layer two components:


1.

2.

Rigid cell wall Cytoplasmic (Cell/ Plasma) membrane present beneath cell wall

Cytoplasm cytoplasmic inclusions, ribosomes, mesosomes and nucleus Additional structures plasmid, slime layer, capsule, flagella, fimbriae (pili), spores
Dr Ekta Chourasia

07.09.08

Structure & Function of Cell Components

CELL WALL

Outermost layer, encloses cytoplasm


1.

Confers shape and rigidity 10 - 25 nm thick

2.

3.

Composed of complex polysaccharides (peptidoglycan/ mucopeptide) - formed by N acetyl glucosamine (NAG) & N acetyl muramic acid (NAM) alternating in chains, held by peptide chains.
Dr Ekta Chourasia

07.09.08

Cell Wall

Cell wall
4.

Carries bacterial antigens important in virulence & immunity Chemical nature of the cell wall helps to divide bacteria into two broad groups Gram positive & Gram negative Gram +ve bacteria have simpler chemical nature than Gram ve bacteria. Several antibiotics may interfere with cell wall synthesis e.g. Penicillin, Cephalosporins
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5.

6.

7.

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Gram positive cell wall

The Gram-positive cell wall is composed of a thick, multilayered peptidoglycan sheath outside of the cytoplasmic membrane. Teichoic acids are linked to and embedded in the peptidoglycan, and lipoteichoic acids extend into the cytoplasmic membrane
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Dr Ekta Chourasia

Gram negative cell wall

The Gram-negative cell wall is composed of an outer membrane linked to thin, mainly single-layered peptidoglycan by lipoproteins. The peptidoglycan is located within the periplasmic space that is created between the outer and inner membranes. The outer membrane includes porins, which allow the passage of small hydrophilic molecules across the membrane, and lipopolysaccharide molecules that extend into extracellular space.
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Cell Wall

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Summary of the differences between Gram positive & Gram negative bacteria
Property of bacteria Thickness of wall Number of layers in wall Peptidoglycan content Teichoic acid in wall Lipid & lipoprotein content Protein content Gram Positive 20-80 nm 1 >50% + 0-3% 0% Gram Negative 10 nm 2 10-20% 58% 9%

Lipopolysaccharide
Sensitive to penicillin Digested by lysozyme
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0
Yes Yes
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13%
Less sensitive Weakly

Cytoplasmic (Plasma) membrane

Thin layer 5-10 nm, separates cell wall from cytoplasm Acts as a semipermeable membrane: controls the inflow and outflow of metabolites Composed of lipoproteins with small amounts of carbohydrates

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Other Cytoplasmic Components

Ribosomes protein synthesis

Mesosomes
1. 2.

3.

4.

Multilaminated structures formed as invaginations of plasma membrane Principal sites of respiratory enzymes Coordinate nuclear & cytoplasmic division during binary fission More prominent in Gram +ve bacteria

Intracytoplasmic inclusions reserve of energy & phosphate for cell metabolism e.g. Metachromatic granules in diphtheria bacilli
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Nucleus

No nucleolus No nuclear membrane Genome


single, circular double stranded DNA. Haploid Divides by binary fission

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Additional Organelles
1.

Plasmid
Extranuclear genetic elements consisting of DNA Transmitted to daughter cells during binary fission

May be transferred from one bacterium to another


Not essential for life of the cell

Confer certain properties e.g. drug resistance, toxicity

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Additional Organelles
2.

Capsule & Slime layer


Viscous layer secreted around the cell wall. Polysaccharide / polypeptide in nature Capsule sharply defined structure, antigenic in nature

a)

Protects bacteria from lytic enzymes Inhibits phagocytosis Stained by negative staining using India Ink Can be demonstrated by Quellung reaction (capsule swelling reaction)

b)

Slime layer loose undemarcated secretion


Dr Ekta Chourasia

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Additional Organelles
3.

Flagella Long (3 to 12 m), filamentous surface appendages


Organs of locomotion
Chemically, composed of proteins called flagellins The number and distribution of flagella on the bacterial surface are characteristic for a given species - hence are useful in identifying and classifying bacteria Flagella may serve as antigenic determinants (e.g. the H antigens of Gram-negative enteric bacteria) Presence shown by motility e.g. hanging drop preparation

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Types of flagellar arrangement


Polar/ Monotrichous single flagellum at one pole

Lophotrichous tuft of flagella at one pole


Amphitrichous flagella at both poles

Peritrichous flagella all over

Amphilophotrichous tuft of flagella at both ends


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Dr Ekta Chourasia

Additional Organelles
4.

Fimbriae/ Pili
Thin, hairlike appendages on the surface of many Gramnegative bacteria 10-20 long, acts as organs of adhesion (attachment) allowing bacteria to colonize environmental surfaces or cells and resist flushing

Made up of proteins called pilins. Pili can be of two types Common pili short & abundant Sex pili - small number (one to six), very long pili, helps in conjugation (process of transfer of DNA)

http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/yespili.html
http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/nopili.html
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Dr Ekta Chourasia

Additional Organelles
5.

Spores

Highly resistant resting stages formed during adverse environment (depletion of nutrients) Formed inside the parent cell, hence called Endospores Very resistant to heat, radiation and drying and can remain dormant for hundreds of years. Formed by bacteria like Clostridia, bacillus

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The cycle of spore formation and germination

At the beginning of spore formation, a septum forms, separating the nascent spore from the rest of the cell and all of the genetic material of the cell is copied into the newlyforming cell. The spore contents are dehydrated and the protective outer coatings are laid down. Once the spore is matured it is released from the cell. On germination, the spore contents rehydrate and a new bacterium emerges and multiplies. http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/sporeform_an.html http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/sporegerm_an.html
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Dr Ekta Chourasia

Shape & position of bacterial spore


Oval central Spherical central Oval sub terminal Oval sub terminal Bulging Non bulging

Oval terminal Spherical terminal Free spore


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Pleomorphism & Involution forms

Pleomorphism great variation in shape & size of individual cells e.g. Proteus species Involution forms swollen & aberrant forms in ageing cultures, especially in the presence of high salt concentration e.g. plague bacillus Cause defective cell wall synthesis

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Dr Ekta Chourasia

Differences between prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells


Character Nucleus Nuclear membrane Nucleolus Prokaryotes Absent Absent Eukaryotes Present Present One or more paired and linear Mitosis fluid phospholipid bilayer containing sterols Capable of endocytosis and exocytosis

Chromosome One circular Cell division Binary fission

Cytoplasmic Structure and fluid phospholipid membrane Composition bilayer, lacks sterols Function Incapable of endocytosis (phagocytosis and pinocytosis) and exocytosis

Differences between prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells


Character Cytoplasm Mitochondria Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Absent Present

Lysosomes
Golgi apparatus Endoplasmic reticulum Vacuoles Ribosomes

Absent
Absent Absent Absent 70 S

Present
Present Present Present 80 S

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Dr Ekta Chourasia

Differences between prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells

Character Cell Wall

Prokaryotes Present

Eukaryotes Animals & Protozoans Absent Plants, Fungi & Algae Present Cellulose or chitin

Composition

Peptidoglycan complex carbohydrate Flagella

Locomotor organelles

Flagella/ Cilia

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Dr Ekta Chourasia

Bacterial Taxonomy

1.

Includes three components:


Classification : orderly arrangement Identification of an unknown unit

2.

3.

Nomenclature : naming the units

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Dr Ekta Chourasia

Bacterial Taxonomy: Classification

Orderly arrangement : Kingdom Division Class Order Family Genus Species

Tribe

Phylogenetic classification represents a branching tree like arrangement. One characteristic being used for division at each branch or level Molecular or Genetic classification based on the degree of genetic relatedness of different organisms

Intraspecies classification based on biochemical properties (biotypes), antigenic features (serotypes), bacteriophage susceptibility (phage types)
Dr Ekta Chourasia

07.09.08

07.09.08

Dr Ekta Chourasia

Bacterial Taxonomy: Nomenclature

Two kinds of name are given to bacteria

Casual / common name for local use, varies from country to country e.g. typhoid bacillus
Scientific / International Name same all over world, consists of two words (in Italics) e.g. Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus

07.09.08

Dr Ekta Chourasia