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# Sharyn D. Villarez Jann Kebby G. Quilao Elynah Roseyell M. Mistiola Christine N. Guevarra Jholo J.

## Zulueta October 2013

There are set of useful methods that can be used to find the area of the triangle but these methods could risk the definitive answer to the problem. In order to obtain a definite answer, the method to be used must be meticulously examined and ensured to produce an exact outcome, but due to the existence and possibility of mathematical errors, absolute values are taken under consideration. The analysis of two methods, the Matrix and Herons Formula, aimed to determine the more convenient and distinctive way to find the area given the coordinates of a triangle.

In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns. The individual items in a matrix are called its elements or entries. A matrix is a concise and useful way of uniquely representing and working with linear transformations. In particular, every linear transformation can be represented by a matrix, and every matrix corresponds to a unique linear transformation. The matrix, and its close relative the determinant, are extremely important concepts in linear algebra, and were first formulated by Sylvester (1851) and Cayley.

In his 1851 paper, Sylvester wrote, "For this purpose we must commence, not with a square, but with an oblong arrangement of terms consisting, suppose, of lines and columns. This will not in itself represent a determinant, but is, as it were, a Matrix out of which we may form various systems of determinants by fixing upon a number , and selecting at will lines and columns, the squares corresponding of th order." Because Sylvester was interested in the determinant formed from the rectangular array of number and not the array itself (Kline 1990, p. 804), Sylvester used the term "matrix" in its conventional usage to mean "the place from which something else originates" (Katz 1993). Sylvester (1851) subsequently used the term matrix informally, stating "Form the rectangular matrix consisting of rows and columns.... Then all the determinants that can be formed by rejecting any one column at pleasure out of this matrix are identically zero." However, it remained up to Sylvester's collaborator Cayley to use the terminology in its modern form in papers of 1855 and 1858 (Katz 1993).

In his 1867 treatise on determinants, C. L. Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) objected to the use of the term "matrix," stating, "I am aware that the word 'Matrix' is already in use to express the very meaning for which I use the word 'Block'; but surely the former word means rather the mould, or form, into which algebraical quantities may be introduced, than an actual assemblage of such quantities...." However, Dodgson's objections have passed unheeded and the term "matrix" has stuck.

There are further applications of matrices; some of these involved the Graph Theory, where the adjacency matrix of a finite graph is a basic notation of theory. In Physics, there are the linear combinations of quantum states where the first model of quantum mechanics by Heisenberg in 1925 represented the theorys operators by infinitedimensional matrices acting on quantum states. This is also referred to as matrix mechanics. There is also matrix in computer graphics, where 4x4 transformation rotation matrices are commonly used in computer graphics. Other applications of Matrix are the use of Row reduction, Cramers Rule or Determinants and using the inverse matrix and lastly, Cryptography.

In geometry, Heron's (or Hero's) formula, named after Heron of Alexandria,states that the area T of a triangle whose sides have lengths a, b, and c is

## where s is the semi perimeter of the triangle:

The formula is credited to Heron (or Hero) of Alexandria, and a proof can be found in his book, Metrica, written c. A.D. 60. It has been suggested that Archimedes knew the formula over two centuries earlier, and since Metrica is a collection of the mathematical knowledge available in the ancient world, it is possible that the formula predates the reference given in that work. Heron's proof (Dunham 1990) is ingenious but extremely convoluted, bringing together a sequence of apparently unrelated geometric identities and relying on the properties of cyclic quadrilaterals and right triangles. Heron's proof can be found in Proposition 1.8 of his work Metrica (ca. 100 BC-100 AD). This manuscript had been lost for centuries until a fragment was discovered in 1894 and a complete copy in 1896 (Dunham 1990, p. 118).

There are many methods for finding the area of a triangle and the methods suggested for solving the area are Herons Formula and Matrix. The proponents conducted an experiment to identify the more convenient and effective way of solving the area of the triangle. In Herons Formula, the method started with determining the distances between the given points and the distances are summed up and divided by 2 in order to find the semi perimeter and lastly Herons Formula is used.

## and s is the semi perimeter of the triangle:

In Matrix, the coordinates are arranged where the xs of all points are in the first row, the ys in the second row and the last column are all ones, then evaluate the determinant and lastly divide it by 2 resulting to the area of the triangle. In Matrix,

Both methods are tested according to the following parameters: Time Accuracy Percentage Error To test the parameters, the proponents presented ten sample problems for solving the area of the triangle with different givens of coordinates.

## The conducted experiment claimed to grant the following to the parameters:

To measure the time, proponents introduced problems to be answered with recorded time resulting in the comparison of time consumed by the two methods. To verify accuracy, there are ten problems given. The successfully answered problems are divided by the number of problems and multiplied to 100. To determine the percentage error, proponents used the formula of percentage error by subtracting the exact value of the answer from the approximate value and divided by the exact value and multiplied by 100.

The following are the recorded data of parameters using the Matrix Method: Table 1 Parameters Calculated for Matrix
Problem 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time (min:secs) 01:05.97 00:54.54 00:48.82 00:53.39 00:59.97 00:55.17 00:47.07 00:39.96 00:45.99 00:49.00 Percentage Error 0% 0% 0% 0% 0.5% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

The following are the recorded data of parameters using Herons Formula:

## Table 2 Parameters Calculated for Herons Formula

Problem 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time (min:secs) 02:59.02 02:00.73 01:43.09 01:24.64 01:41.29 01:40.03 01:42.24 01:08.85 01:42.10 01:35.26 Percentage Error 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0.2% 0% 0.2% 0% 0.2%

The proponents gathered the data from 20 selected engineering students, where first 10 were referred to use the Matrix method and the rest were appointed to use Herons Formula.

## The following are the interpretations of data:

In Table 1, the calculated parameters for Matrix showed results in accordance to the time consumed and percentage error. Among the ten problems, problem 5 established a 0.5% percentage error. In Table 2, the parameters calculated showed a huge difference to the parameters established in Table 1. Problems 6, 8 and 10 produced 0.2% percentage error.

Comparative Results between the Two Methods in Solving for the Area
Matrix Herons Formula

## 80% 01:45.45 0.6%

According to the data table, the results presented gave an understanding about the comparison between methods with regards to the accuracy, time and percentage error. Based on the results:

In terms of accuracy, the computed percentage is 90% in Matrix and 80% in Herons Formula.

In terms of time, the computed time for Matrix is 52.12 seconds while 1 minute and 45.45 seconds for Herons Formula. In terms of percentage error, the computed percentage for Matrix is 0.5% while 0.6% for Herons Formula.

## The following conclusions are drawn from the study:

Familiarity in the usage of either two methods shortens the time consumed in solving for the area of the triangle.
Matrix Method had a higher accuracy than of Herons Formula.

The time consumed in solving the area using the Matrix is proved to be less than a minute.
The use of Matrix Method minimized the percentage of error.

## Herons Formula had a lower accuracy than of the Matrix Method.

Herons

Formula consumed more time for solving the area. Herons Formula had a larger percentage error than of the Matrix Method. There is a 10% interval between the two methods in terms of accuracy. There is 53.03-second interval between the two methods in terms of time. There is 0.1% interval of percentage of error between the two methods.

## Matrix Method should be used in finding the area of the triangle.

Matrix Method should be used to obtain results that are close to the exact value.
Use Matrix Method to save time and effort. Matrix Method is more convenient and effective for solving the area of the triangle.

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En.wikipedia.org.2013. Matrix (mathematics).[online]Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matrix_(mathematics) [Accessed: 5 Oct 2013]. Heath, Thomas L. (1921). A History of Greek Mathematics (Vol II). Oxford University Press. pp. 321323. Weisstein, Eric W. "Matrix." From Math World--A Wolfram Web Resource. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Matrix.html Weisstein, Eric W. "Heron's Formula." From Math World--A Wolfram Web Resource. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/HeronsFormula.ht ml Slideshare.net. 2013. Matrices And Application Of Matrices. [online] Available at: http://www.slideshare.net/mailrenuka/matrices-andapplication-of-matrices [Accessed: 6 Oct 2013].