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Antenna System

ZTE University


By the end of this course, you will be able:

To Understand the concept of dipole To state GSM antenna specifications To comprehend the principle of antenna selection


Antenna overview Antenna specifications Principle of antenna selection

Radio Waves

A form of electromagnetic radiation typically generated as disturbances sent out by oscillating charges on a transmitting antenna

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An Antenna is an device used to collect or radiate Electromagnetic Waves

Antenna for mobile communication

Linear antennas are


Monopole (Slab)

Array of dipoles

Dipole Elements
Single Monopole Patch Antenna Base Tranceiver Station Antenna

Mobile Phones

Antenna basic structure

Antenna are generally composed of stacked of dipole bundling their radiated power to form a desired antenna pattern in vertical plains around the antenna Depending on the gain desired that wants to be achieved several of those diploes can be arranged on top of one another

Generation of radio waves


1/4 Wavelength 1/2 Wavelength

1/4 Wavelength 1/2 Wavelength Dipole

1800MHz 166mm 900MHz 333mm

Half wave dipole

1 dipole
Received Power1mW

Multiple dipole matrix

Received Power4 mW

GAIN= 10log(4mW/1mW) = 6dBd

Isotropic antenna

Antenna (Overlook

Omnidirectional array Received power1mW

Sector antenna Received power8mW

Gain=10log(8mW/1mW) = 9dBi

dBd and dBi

Ideal radiating dot source (lossless radiator)


0dBd = 2.15dBi


dBd and dBi


Antenna overview Antenna specifications Principle of antenna selection

Antenna electrical properties

Operating Frequency Band Input impedance VSWR Polarization Gain Radiation Pattern Horizontal/Vertical beamwidth Downtilt Front/back ratio Sidelobe suppression and null filling Power capability 3rd order Intermodulation Insulation

GSM antenna frequency range

Type GSM 900 GSM 1800 GSM Dual Band

Frequency Range 890 1710 890 1710 960 MHz 1880 MHz 960 MHz 1880 MHz

GSM antenna frequency range

Optimum 1/2 wavelength for dipole at 925MHz

at 890 MHz

at 960 MHz Antenna Dipole

BANDWIDTH = 960 - 890 = 70MHz


Standard Value: 50

Antenna Cable 50 ohms 50 ohms

Voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR)

Forward: 10W
50 ohms Backward: 0.5W 80 ohms

9.5 W

Return Loss 10log(10/0.5) = 13dB

VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio)

Calculation of VSWR

VSWR1.5 = (VSWR-1)/(VSWR+1) RetureLoss = -20lg


3dB Beamwidth Peak - 3dB

10dB Beamwidth
Peak - 10dB 120 (eg) Peak Peak - 10dB

60 (eg)


Peak - 3dB

3dBm horizontal beamwidth

Directional Antenna65/90/105/120 Omni360



3dBm vertical beamwidth

Omni-directional Directional

Antenna structure types

Omni-directional Directional




+ 45degree slant

- 45degree slant

Space diversity

Polarization diversity

V/H (Vertical/Horizontal)

Slant (+/- 45)

Types of antenna

Linear Polarization,vertical

X Polarization, 45

Antenna down tilt

Mechanical down tilt Fixed electronic down tilt Adjustable electronic down tilt

Mechanical down tile

It is achieved by physically tilting the antenna out of the perpendicular by using down tilt kit PROS: Cost efficient and flexible CON: Has no effect on the side-lobe characteristics of the antenna

Electrical down tilt

Input Signal

Electrical downtilt can be fixed or adjustable Fixed is tuned by the manufacturer Adjustable allows adjustment in a certain level on the rear of the antenna

Down tilt

Non down tilt

Electronic downtilt

Mechanical downtilt

Antenna tilt development


Ratio of maximum mainlobe to maximum sidelobe

Back power

Front power

F/B = 10 log(FP/BP)

typically 25dB

Upper sidelobe suppression and null fill

Upper sidelobe suppression and null fill


It occurs when two signals of a different frequency mix in a non-linear device

It can be a problem at any site that has two or more transmitters It can be caused by a transmitter of the same system or by a transmitter in another site that is co-sited or has a site in the neighborhood


f1, f2, 2f1-f2, 2f2-f1

913 MHz

936 MHz

959 MHz

982 MHz


10log(1000mW/1mW) = 30dB

1000mW ( 1W)


Antenna mechanical properties

Size Weight Radome material Appearance and color Working temperature Storage temperature Windload Connector types Package Size Lightning Protection



Lengthconnected with vertical bandwidth and gain Widthconnected with horizontal bandwidth Heightconnected with techniques adopted


A factor that can affect transport and deployment

Radome materials

PVC, Fiberglass Anti-temperature, water-proof antiagingweather resistant


Good-looking Environment-protecting

Temperature range

Operation and storage

Typical range-40C


Connector type
7/16DINNSMA Female/male


Mast diameter 4590mm

Lightning protection

Direct Ground

Antenna types

By frequency band: GSM900, GSM1800, GSM900/1800 By polarization: Vertical, Horizontal, 45 linear polarization, circle polarization By pattern: Omni-directional, directional By down-tilt: Non, mechanical, electronic adjustment, remote control By function: Transmission, receiver, transceiver

Feeder cable

7/8 Main feeder

Jumper cable


Lightning arrestor
Rf port 2



Trimming Tool or Hand Tool Kit Clamp Earthing Kit Wall Glands Hoisting Stocking Universal Ground Bar

Antenna system

1/2 Clamp

7/16 Din Connector

1/2 Jumper Tower Top Amplifier 7/8 Cable 7/8 Cable Grounding Machine house

1/2 Jumper EMP

Grounding clip

Grounding bar


Antenna overview Antenna specifications Principle of antenna selection

Radio propagation in cities

Environment features:

Densely deployed BTSsmall coverage area Decrease over coverage and interference, increase frequency reuse factor

Antenna selection in cities

Direction 3dB bandwidth

Dual-polarization (Installation space)

Directional antenna (Frequency reuse factor) 60~65(Control coverage)



Tilt down angle

Fixed electrical tilt down

Radio propagation in suburb/rural area

Environment features:

Loosely deployed BTS light traffic large coverage

Antenna selection in suburb/rural area

Polarization Direction 3dB bandwidth Gain Both dual-polarized and vertical directional 90105 16-18dBi directional or 911dBi omni Mechanical tilt down; 50m high; null fill

Tilt down angle

Radio propagation in road/highway environment

Environment features:

Low traffic Fast moving subscribers Focus on coverage. Strip coverage Two sectors Omni-cell when pass towns or tourist site

Antenna selection for highway

Polarization Direction 3dB bandwidth

Both dual-polarized and vertical Narrow beamwidth directional 30

Tilt down angle

No tilt down

Radio propagation in mountainous environment

Environment features:

Block by mountains Big propagation loss Difficult to cover

Antenna selection in mountainous area

Polarization Direction 3dB bandwidth Gain Tilt down angle

Both dual-polarized and vertical Omni or directional Big 3db verticle bandwidth Omni (9-11dBi Directional (15-18dBi Null fill & electrical tilt down