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Choose to be healthy

Dr. Anna Rangini Chellappa Asst Professor, Home Science, Queen Mary's College

What is health?
Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity.

Factors influencing health




Sleep and rest


To eat or not to eat ??

.yield not to temptation

Weighty issues that weigh us down!!!

The famous starting problem !!!

To frown or to smile ??
From Pieces to peace peace -laughter is the best medicine

Step- 1 Stepping towards health


Food and health

We are all eating

But are we eating right?

Food Pyramid

Why all the five food groups?

Energy giving


Body building

The cereal and millets group

Food pyramid cereals and millets

Food group Foods included Principle nutrients

Cereals and millets

11exchanges ( each is 30 g) 3+4+4

Rice, wheat, ragi, jowar, rawa, rice flakes, vermicelli, bread

100 g of cereals provide Carbohydrate -80% Energy-340 Kcal. Protein 6-12% Fat 1-2%
(Starch, incomplete proteins Whole grains contain thiamine, ragi a good source of calcium, rice flaks are a good source of iron )

Cereal exchange
100 kcal, 1.5-3.5 g of protein,
Idli ( big)-1 Dosa-1 ( medium) Chapathi-1 Upuma cup Veg noodles -1 cup Paniyaram- I piece Sandwich- one triangle Idiyappam -1 Vermicelli payasam 2 tbsp Kesari 11/2 tbsp pongal cup poori 1 medium Plain cake -30 g Pulao , curd rice, Plain rice -3/4 cup Bissibella bath cup Tamarind rice cup

11exchanges ( each is 30 g) 3+4+4

Why to say NO to processed foods

Dangers of processed foods

Breakfast bars, breakfast cereals, noodles, pasta Bran with all the fibre and B- vitamins is removed, The germ with fat , protein is removed. The denuded white flour is used to makes cakes , pastries, noodles, pasta, and so on.- Starch endosperm. The milling proves uses high temperature and the grain is damaged by oxidation to get a gray appearance . Still thinking of eating processed foods?

The dangers of processed foods contd. Most processed foods have high glycaemic content, sugar , salt or preservatives. Most of them have MSG Beware of the MSG disguise The guise of names like hydrolysed vegetable or plant protein, autolysed yeast, yeast extract, soy protein isolate, natural flavour ,artificial flavours autolysed plant protein.

The fruit and vegetable group

Importance of fruits and vegetables Food group Foods included Principle nutrients
Fruits and vegetables ( 4 exchanges , 100 g each) 1+2+1 Yellow and orange fruits and vegetables and greens Vitamin C group Amla, lemon, guava, orange, tomato, drumstick leaves , cabbage Brinjal,Beans, ladies finger, cucumber, apples, sapota, banana All leafy vegetables, cabbage, carrots, orange, mango, papaya Good source of vitamin -A. Leafy vegetables are a good source of calcium ,iron fibre and folic acid

Rich in vitamin-C Potato has thiamine, vitamin C besides starch

Other fruits and vegetables

All other fruits and vegetables contribute to small amounts of vitamins and minerals, antioxidants and fibre

Fruit and vegetable exchange

Approximate calorific value of 100 g of

roots and tubers 80 Kcal green leafy vegetables-45 kcal all other vegetables- 30 kcal

Fruits 40 kcal

100 kcal exchange list for fruits

( apple -1 medium, banana -1 small, pineapple 2 slices. orange-2 medium, fruit salad cup, guava 1 big

What's the fuss about fruits and vegetables ? Fiber

Antioxidants and Phytonutrients

Fruit and vegetable Benefits

Fibre The non digestible component of plant cell wall that cannot be digested by the enzymes of the human digestive tract. All fibres are divided into two categories

Soluble fibres- pectin, gum , hemicelluloses insoluble fibers-n cellulose, lignin, and osme hemicellulosesExamples fruits, oats,barley, legumes- more soluble fibres vegetables-, wheat, whole grains- insoluble fibres

Contribution of dietary fibreGives no nutrients, but bulk to stimulate peristaltic movements and prevents degenerative diseases

and lot more..

Fiber benefits disease prevention

Constipation, diverticulosis, irritable bowel syndrome, varicose veins piles( insoluble fibre-whole wheat flour, bran, wholegram, vegetables,, straw berries Increases water holding capacity, Increases stool weight Enhances gastric motility

Cancer of large intestine( insoluble Increases binding of intestinal bile fibre-whole wheat flour, bran, whole acids gram, vegetables,, straw berries) food residue remains less time in colon for carcinogens to be absorbed. Increases frequency of defecation, bulk and water of faeces dilutes carcinogens to non toxic levels

Fiber benefits
Coronary heart Clearance of LDL cholesterol,. disease, gall stones- Slows gastric emptying and binds Disease prevention!! soluble fibres-oats, bile acids, legumes, guar gum, Reduces serum fibrinogen and barley, apple guavas, reduces blood clot formation, citrus fruits, carrots Reduces fatty acid absorption. straw berries) fruits Lowers blood pressure by and vegetables through increased absorption of calcium and magnesium. Fibres binds fecal bile acids and increases excretion of bile acid derived cholesterol.

Fiber benefits- disease prevention

Diabetes mellitus- soluble fibre- oats, legumes, guar gum, barley, apple guavas, citrus fruits, carrots straw berries) fruits and vegetables Rate of glucose absorption is decreased, , reduces the requirement of insuln, increases the peripheral insulin sensitivity, alters gut hormones to enhance glucose metabolism in liver, Obesity- legume seed covering - Gastric emptying is delayed and soluble fibres-oats, legumes, feeling of satiety is increased, guar gum, barley, apple guavas, diets high in fibre have low citrus fruits, carrots straw calories berries) fruits and vegetables

Benefits of fruits and vegetables

2. Phyto nutrients- a rainbow of health

Phytonutrients - What are they?

They are biologically active substances that give fruits and vegetables their colour , flavour smell They exhibit their activity as antioxidants, detoxifying agents or by physiochemical means as in dietary fibre

Phytochemicals present in plant foods

Colour Red pigment and source Sources Benefits

- tomatoes, watermelon, About one in six men grapes contain lycopene develop prostrate cancer. . Lycopene in tomato has been found to fight against it.

red / purple .

blue berries, red cabbage, brinjal - contain flavinoids , anthocyanidin

They have 50 times the antioxidant property of vitamin-c . They strengthen and repair connective tissues and arteries.

Phytochemicals present in plant foods

Colour ,phytochemical and source Sources Benefits

Red Reseveratrol /purple found in red grape and purple grapes is a phenolic compound

Inhibits the development and progression of cancer. Decreases the stickiness pf platelets and prevent blood clots. Raises HDL cholesterol. Strawberries contain powerful flavinoids -anti inflammatory , carcinogenic and anti tumor properties

Phytochemicals present in plant foods

Colour pigment and source Sources Orange coloured fruits and vegetables like carrots mangoes , pumpkin, yam -high carotenoids. Oranges, lime,papaya, pineapple are rich in vitaminC Benefits


Prevents cancer and heart disease. Prevents cholesterol form oxidising, Prevents platelet formation. one carrot every may may help protecting from cancer,

orange / yellow

Fights the free radical damage. Citrus bioflavinoids .- Strengthens blood vessels, maintains collagen that forms tendons, cartilage and ligaments. Treats bruises varicose veins, haemorrhoids

Phytochemicals present in plant foods

Colour pigment and source Sources spinach, peas all green leafy vegetables are rich in lutein Broccoli. cabbage, sprouts, cruciferous vegetables the best anticancer ancer agents Benefits

Yellow / green

Prevent risk of lung and breast cancer

Green .

They are cruciferous and crucify cancer causing agents cabbage in particular is very good and protects cancer of the breast, prostrate and colon

Phytochemicals present in plant foods

Colour pigment and source Sources Curcumin in turmeric. Benefits


significant antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory Helps treats sprains, inflamed joints . Lowers cholesterol level and prevents blood clots.

Anti oxidants

They are substances that have an ability to neutralise free radicals. Antioxidants are to free radicals what water is to raging forest burning with fire Foods rich in antioxidants
Hot chocolate drinks without sugar and milk kidney beans soy Citrus fruits, blue berries, black berries, straw berries, red beans, cherries, cauliflower, tomatoes, water melon, carrots sweet potato, oranges ,lemons, limes, grape, spinach, onions , garlic, and green tea

Beneficial effects of antioxidants

Anti oxidant Beneficial effect

B-carotene all dark green Reduce risk of lung and vegetables, yellow orange fruits stomach cancer , CVD,throat and vegetables, papaya, musk cnacers melon, mango, pumpkin, carrots, greens Vitamin-C, amla, lime, orange, sprouts all citrus fruits, guava Reduce cancers of upper GI tract, cervix, CVD

Beneficial effects of antioxidants

Anti oxidant Beneficial effect

Vitamin-E-Vegetable oil seeds nuts , whole grains.

Reduce risk of oral and pharyngeal cancers , CVD

Selenium-meat, sea foods and cereals

Esophageal cancers , stomach cancers

The pulse and legume group

Food pyramid group 3 PULSES

Food group Foods included Principle nutrients

Pulses, All dhal, whole nuts and oil grams, nuts like seeds peanut ,Almond (4 exchanges , walnut 30 g each = Oil seeds1+1+1) sesame, soyabean , sprouts

Protein, iron and thiamine Fat, protein, iron, thiamine, riboflavin

Pulse exchange
100 kcal, 3.5 g of protein,
Sambhar -11/2 cups Thick dhal cup channa masala- cup dry peas sundal cup roasted bengal gram chutney ( no coconut) cup sprouted moong dhal 1 cup Masal vadai- 2 small adai-1 pesarattu -3/4 Vadai-1 medium bajji-2 small bonda -1 ( 3-4 exchanges 1+1+1+1)

Phytochemicals present legumes and pulses

Phytochemical Saponins Sources kidney beans , lentils and chick peas and soyabeans Benefits prevent cancer cells form multiplying

isoflavones .

Soya beans

It blocks tumour growth and prevents the growth of new blood cells that feed the tumour. Effective against prostrate and breast cancer.

The milk and meat group

Food pyramid Group 4 Milk and meat products

Food group Foods included Principle nutrients

Milk Whole milk, 3 cheese, curd, ice Exchnges1 cream +1+1 150 ml milk Low fat milk

Good Source-Calcium , riboflavin. protein, phosphorus, thiamine, vitamin-D. Whole milk has fat remove cream from milk Do not substitute calcium tablets as it does not contain protein and riboflavin Avoid condensed milk as it contains high amounts of sugar

Milk exchanges
2-3 exchanges permitted 100 kcal, 4.5 g protein Milk ( low fat) 1cup 150 ml curd 150 ml /1 cup cheese 30g paneer 40g buttermilk 250 ml milk shake 75 ml

Food pyramid Group 4 meat, fish , egg

Food group Foods included Principle nutrients

Meat, poultry, Meat, poultry, fish and eggs fish and eggs (I exchange 50g)of either fish, chicken , mutton

Protein , iron, zinc, Liver excellent source of vitamin A and iron Egg has protein, iron thiamine, phosphorus, riboflavin, yolk has vitamin A and fat

The oil and sugar group

Sugar- use in moderation

Fats, oils and sugar group

Food group Foods included Principle nutrients

Fats and oils All oils, fats like ghee, Oils give 9 Kcal/gram butter, vanaspathi Supply essential fatty acids, and PUFA Ghee, butter vanaspathi contain saturated fatty acids, Good sources of Vitamin A Sugar and and D jaggery Sugar and jaggery Sugar and jaggery- 4 Kcal (sugar 5g x 5 /gram. 0il 5g x 5) Jaggery - good source of iron

Fats and oil caution

Fats add delicious taste and mouth feel but are dangerously priced. There are fats that kill fast - trans fats or hydrogenated fats Fats that kill in moderation ( Saturated and poly unsaturated fats) Fats that heal ( omega three fats and monounsaturated fats). Requirement- 30% of total calories. ( 7080g /day). MUFA 12-14 percent and PUFA 6-8 percent , saturated fats < 10% of total calories

Trans fats- the killer fats!!

Trans fats killer fats

Trans fats ( hydrogenated and partially hydrogenated fats). Raise LDL cholesterol and lower -heart disease and cancer. Trasn fats or hydrogenated fats are present in margarine, pastries, rolls, breakfast cereals, breakfast bars, crackers, processed and packaged foods., cookies, cakes and pies KFC, pizzas, burgers, french fries are high in trans fats

Requirement -not more than 7-10% of totals calories should be from saturated fats.

Dangers of saturated fats

High intake of saturated fats Atheroma formation Increases LDL cholesterol Decreases HDL Increases plasma triglycerides

Benefits of PUFA
PUFA esterification of cholesterol Synthesis of VLDL precursors Production of LDL and triglycerides Thrombosis Accumulation of cholesterol in blood vessels clearance of LDL

n-6 PUFA
Lowers total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol Lowers HDL cholesterol also Examples- safflower, sunflower , sesame oil.

n-3 fatty acids

total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol Does not lower HDL cholesterol Omega -3 fatty acids are found in fish. Protects the brain by reversing signs of aging , memory loss and impaired learning. It has anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties.

Foods rich in n-3 fatty acids

fish , walnuts green leafy vegetables, soybean , egg

Monounsaturated fats
SourcesOlives, olive oil, almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts,

Wonders of walnut

Walnuts contain alpha linolenic acid . Used for synthesis of EPA and DHA. prevents platelets from aggregating which reduced blood clots Reduces pain and inflammation

Tips on oil usage

Recommended combination of oils for optimal health benefits GNO: MO = 3:1 GNO: SOB =2:1 POL:SOB =1:1 SUN: PAL: MO =2:1:1 SAF:PAL =1:2 SUN: POL =1:1 SAF:GNO( RBO) =1:3 SUN:GNO( RBO) =1:3 SES:GNO =1:3

Sugar requirements
Sugar permitted only in moderation 20 g 25 g of sugar 4-5 tsp

Is it sweet after all


The bitter/ sweet truth

It damages hypothalamus which controls the appetite. It causes pancreas to produce more insulin a signal that tells the body to store more fat Impairs the immune system which protects against viruses Eating 100g of simple carbohydrates like biscuits, cakes reduces the ability of white blood cells to engulf and destroy micro organisms by 50%

Sugar feeds cancer cells Sugar increases risk of behavioral disorders hyperactivity Sugar elevates the risk of type 2 diabetes and increase cholesterol and triglycerides. Sugar accelerates ageing process


- saying No to aspartame
Aspartame is made of aspartic cid, phenylalanine and methanol . . Methanol is converted to formaldehyde and formic acid high amts can cause blindness and neurological damage, It over stimulates nervous system, gives rise to brain tumours and abnormalities. Aspartame is usually found in diet food items and beverages, low fat yoghurt, sugar less sweets and chewing gums

Sucralose exposed !!!

Sugar is turned into chlorocarbon. Shrinks thymus glands , enlarges liver and kidneys, decreases RBCs, abortions, diarrhoea, bloating, abdominal pain, headache, breathless, palpitations, dizziness, joint pain

The safe sweetener



How you eat matters lot !!!

Eat The Right Way

Chew each bite 15-20 times Do not rush through meals as this suppresses flow of HCL. Don't drink cold water or cool drinks along with food as it dampens the HC and digestive juices. Eat breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince and dinner like a pauper. Eat in moderation. Dont complain and criticize fight and argue while eating

Family Meal Time

Breakfast Idli -3 Tomato onion chutney 1/2 cup Egg boiled -1 Banana -1 small Coffee with sugar and milk- I cup

TeaTime tea/coffee icup Sundal I cup

Midmorning1 cup tea, milk and sugar Lunch Rice 2- cups Ladies finger sambhar 1 cup Greens poriyal -1/2 cup Salad- sprouts, carrot, cucumber, onion, beetroot-1/2 cup Curds 1 cup Orange/papaya/seasonal fruit100g

Dinner tomato soup/ vegetable oats soup- I cup chapathi -2 and 1 cup rice Cauliflower/ brinjal curry 1 cup Vegetable salad- tomato, capsicum, Dates/ almonds or walnut 5 each
The diet provides approx 2200 Kcal and 50 grams of protein, , 65 g of fat, carbohydrate 280 g

Step- 1 Stepping towards health

Step-2 Drink water

Wonders of water

How much and when to drink water

Drink at least 2 litres /day- 8 glasses Drink only 250- 400 ml of water at a time Drink water 15-30 minutes before meals or two hours after meals. Drink only 4-8 ounces of room temp water at meals Dont drink much water after 7 pm as it may interfere with sleep/ Dont wait until thirsty to drink water

Bottled water, bitter or better

Plastic bottles- poisonous container PVC -carcinogen. PVC leaches vinyl chloride disrupts hormonal balance- fertility problems damaging cells organs and tissues. Bisphenol- it can cause abnormal chromosomal loss or gain. Studies show that these chemical leach into the water from the plastic bottle PET polyethylene terephthalate is safer but also release phthalates when stored for too long.

Your response to bottled water ?

Safe drinking water option?

Water Purified Through Reverse Osmosis Filters water through extremely fine membrane very slowly. Removes virtually everything chlorine , fluorine, virus, bacteria, parasites, chemicals heavy metals like lead and mercury. . Disadvantage- they make the water acidic.

Step- 1 Stepping towards health

Step-3 Exercise

Exercise towards health

promotes weight loss and decreases appetite increases perspiration- body gets rid of waste products lowers risk for diabetes. It controls blood sugar -Increases bodies ability to use insulin, burns fat lowers insulin requirement improves the immune system and improves lymphatic flow and helps remove cellular waste

Benefits of exercise
Sows aging process Improves digestion. Gives a restful sleep, Reduces depression. Exercise alleviates pain.


releases endorphins Exercise lowers stress-It enhances neuro transmitter and lowers cortisol levels

Tips to burn those excess calories

Activity Sleeping Eating Standing Moderate house work Gardening Walking 3 mph Calories burned/ hour 55 85 100 160 250 280

Tennis Moderate aerobics

Fast walking Running fast Moderate cycling

350 450
600 700 650

Guess?? How many pounds were lost after people walked their dog for 20 minutes a days five times a week for one year? options 4, 9, 14, 22 pounds

Fitness freaks !!

Step- 1 Stepping towards health


Sleeping towards health

Regulates the release of important hormones Slows ageing process Boosts the immune system, Restores, repairs, and rejuvenates your body. Improves brain function Reduces cortisol levels

What happens when you do not sleep

clumsy- slows reaction time, attention span, impairs memory, decision making and coordination Reduces work productivity Endanger lives of others invite diseases- hypertension. diabetes, cardiovascular diseases.ulcer, heart burn , depression,

What's robbing you of your sleep

Stress and anxiety Physically painful conditions Caffeine coffee, chocolates, soft drinks caffeine increases stress hormone- cortisol and adrenaline Cigarettes and alcohol Medications- decongestants, appetite suppressants Asthma medications, thyroid, pain relievers, antidepressants and pain relievers

What's robbing you of your sleep

Eating too much sugar and highly processed foods , ice cream , cake , popcorn deserts Low carbohydrate diets- create low blood sugar causing to wake in the middle of the night Exercise within 3 hrs before going to sleep, raises level of stress hormones uncomfortable mattress or pillow

Step- 1 Stepping towards health

Step-5 Say NO T To Stress

Coping with stress- step towards health

Develop the attitude of gratitude Enjoy the present moment Power of laughter and joy. Power of forgiveness Think on good and positive things. learn the art of saying no Dont take more than you can handle Breathe deeply Plan your activities

Choose to eat lightly, breathe deeply, live moderately, cultivate cheerfulness, and maintain an interest in life.



We choose to be healthy

..What about you?

May flowers bloom your pathway May peace and joy combine To make you always happy May all Gods blessing be thine Thank you