=
5 2
3 4
+
+
i
i
18
The conjugate of a complex number a
+ bi:
The conjugate of a complex number a + bi is the
same number, but with the opposite sign in the
middle: a bi. For example, the conjugate of 3 +
4i is 3 4i.
The multiplication by conjugates produces a sum
of squares. You should pause to verify this fact:
This is similar to the more familiar difference of
squares:
( )( ) a bi a bi a b + = +
2 2
( )( ) a b a b a b + =
2 2
19
Division example:
Note that in the first step we multiplied both numerator
and denominator by the conjugate of the denominator.
In the last step, note how the fraction was split into
two pieces. This is because, technically speaking, a
complex number is expressed as a sum of two parts:
a + bi.
To check this example on your calculator, enter
(5+2i)(3+4i) to get .92  .56i. If you prefer fractions
over decimals, press MATH FRAC ENTER.
5 2
3 4
5 2
3 4
3 4
3 4
15 20 6 8
9 12 12 16
23 14
25
23
25
14
25
2
2
+
+
=
+
+
=
+
+
=
=
i
i
i
i
i
i
i i i
i i i
i
i
20
Pause and Practice 3
Divide: (3 + 4i) (5 2i) by hand, and then
check your answer by calculator.
21
Modulus (or, Absolute Value):
We have seen how complex numbers can be
represented by points in the complex plane.
Unlike the real numbers, there is not a natural
way to order them. For example, 3 < 4, but how
would you compare 3 + 2i and 4 + i? We do this
by computing the distance each point is from the
origin. Using the distance formula,
The modulus (or, absolute value ) of a complex
number a + bi is defined to be its distance to the
origin, and is denoted by
Note that this definition agrees with the definition
of absolute value of a real number.
3 2 13 4 1 17
2 2 2 2
+ = + = ,
a bi a b + = +
2 2
22
In our example, we would say that the modulus
of 3 + 2i is less than the modulus of 4 + i.
You can check your answers on the calculator
using abs(a+ib), as seen in the following
example:
Select MATH NUM abs(3+2i) ENTER, giving a
decimal approximation to the square root of 13.
Since this number is irrational, you cannot
convert it to a fraction using FRAC.
23
Pause and practice4
For each of the following complex numbers, plot
the complex number as a point in the complex
plane, connect the point to the origin by a
segment, and compute the modulus (first by
hand, then by calculator) to obtain the length of
this segment.
(a) 3 + 4i (b) 5 + 12i (c) 8 6i
24
Lesson 1  Quiz
Try to answer each question twice,
without a calculator and then with a
calculator.
1.
2.
25
Lesson 1  Quiz
3. Draw the vector representing 2i .
4.
5.
26
Lesson 1  Quiz
6.
7.
Answers: 1(b), 2(a), 4(c), 5(a), 6(b), 7(d)
27
Introduction:
In this discussion, it will be convenient to denote
a complex number by a single variable name.
??
Lesson 2: Geometric understanding of addition and
subtraction
28
Let w = a + bi and z = c + di.
If O denotes the origin, then the following four
points form vertices of a parallelogram: O, w, z,
and w + z.
For example, if w = 2 + i and z = 1 + 2i, then
w + z = 3 + 3i. It is easy to see that (0, 0), (2, 1),
(1, 2), and (3, 3) form vertices of a parallelogram.
The points (0, 0) and (3, 3) are endpoints of one
diagonal, while (2, 1) and (1, 2) are endpoints of
the other diagonal.
In general, O and w + z are
endpoints of one diagonal,
while w and z are endpoints of
the other diagonal.
Please click the button
to ??.
29
w
z
w+z
Applet
for
addition
Pause and practice5
Sketch the parallelogram formed by the complex
numbers
w = 1 + 2i , z = 2 + I , origin and w+z.
Is this a rectangle? a square?
Also confirm it with the applet
30
Applet
for
addition
What about subtraction?
Once again, a parallelogram is formed: by the
four points: O, w, z, and w z. However, in this
case O and w are endpoints of one diagonal,
while z and w  z are endpoints of the other
diagonal.
Try with the applet
31
Applet for
subtractio
n
Pause and practice5
O and w are endpoints of one diagonal, while z
and w  z are endpoints of the other diagonal.
Confirm this fact in the case where w = 1 + 2i and
z = 2 + i.
And check with the applet
Applet for
subtractio
n
Complex numbers in polar
form
In order to gain a geometric understanding of
multiplication, it will be convenient to represent points
in the complex plane using polar coordinates.
Suppose that z = a + bi. Rather than represent this
point using rectangular xycoordinates, we can use
polar coordinates (r, ). The variable r represents the
distance from point z to the origin, and is the angle
(measured counterclockwise) the vector z makes with
the positive xaxis.
33
Using the definitions of the trigonometric
functions sine and cosine, we have
Therefore, z can be written
The expression arises so frequently that it is
customary to abbreviate it as cis . Then, z =
r cis is called the polar form of a complex
number.
Since the distance to the origin is represented by
the modulus of z, we have . The angle
is called the argument of z. Note that the
argument can have many possible values, but
any two of them must differ by a multiple of 360
degrees.
cos ,
sin .
a r
b r
u
u
=
=
( )
z a bi
r ir
r i
= +
= +
= +
cos sin
cos sin
u u
u u
r z =
34
u u
There is an interesting connection between the
polar form of a complex number and the real
function , which is the inverse function of
the natural logarithm. In the 18
th
century,
Leonhard Euler discovered that
, provided that is measured in radians. Thus,
and so the polar form of a complex
number can be written as
The polar form is available on the TI84
calculator. Simply press MODE, then move the
cursor down to REAL and over to re^ , then
press ENTER. The value of is expressed in
radians or degrees, depending on the MODE
setting.
35
Example: Find the polar form of z = 1 +
i.
The vector represented by z is the segment from
the origin to the point (1, 1). By drawing a sketch,
one easily sees that the argument is 45 degrees (
multiples of 360). In cases which are not clear,
one can use the formula . In our example,
both x and y have value 1.
To obtain the modulus, .
Thus, the polar form is
You can check this answer on your calculator by
typing:
1 + i ENTER. Of course, your MODE setting
should already be set to polar: re^
tanu =
y
x
2 2
1 1 2 r z = = + =
2cis 45 z =
36
Example: Find the standard form of z = 2 cis 150.
We make use of the formulas
This gives
Thus,
We now check this answer on the calculator. Since
there is no cis key, we make use of the key 2ND .
Also, recall that Eulers formula is valid
only in radians. So, we first must convert 150
degrees to radians and enter our expression as
ENTER. This gives the desired result, but
with an approximation to . Note that 2e^(150*i)
ENTER gives a very different (and wrong!) answer.
a r
b r
=
=
cos ,
sin .
u
u
2 cos 150 3 and 2 sin 150 1. a b = = = =
3 z i = +
37
Pause and practice6
Try these by hand, and then check with your
calculator.
(a) Find the polar form of z = 4 3i.
(b) Find the standard form of z = 2 cis 225.
38
Geometric understanding of
multiplication
We now show that the product of two complex
numbers has modulus equal to the product of the
individual moduli and argument equal to the sum of
the individual arguments.
Let w = w cis A and z = z cis B. Then,
wz = (w cis A)( z cis B)
= wz(cos A + i sin A)(cos B + i sin B)
= wz(cos A cos B sin A sin B + i sin A cos B + i
cos A sin B)
39
Using the trigonometric angle sum formulas, this
last expression can be written as
= wz(cos(A + B) + i sin(A + B)).
Thus, the polar form of wz is
wz = wz(cos(A + B) + i sin(A + B)),
which allows us to identify wz as the modulus of
wz, and
A + B as the argument of wz.
40
Pause and practice7
Let w = 2i, and let z = 1 + i.
(a) Find the product wz.
(b) Find the modulus of each of w, z, and wz, and
then try to decide how these three moduli are
related to each other. Relate your answers to the
polar forms of all three numbers (Check their
polar forms on your calculator.)
(c) Plot the three points w, z, and wz in the complex
plane, and connect each point to the origin with a
line segment. Try to decide how the angles
between the positive real axis and these three
lines are related to one another. Relate your
answers to the polar forms of all three numbers
(Check their polar forms on your calculator.)
41
De Moivres Theorem:
We can use the polar form to square a complex number:
where A is the
argument of z.
where A is the argument of z. As you can see, we have
squared the modulus and doubled the argument.
Continuing to multiply a complex number by itself, we get a
result known as de Moivres Theorem:
Example: Simplify .
The modulus of 1 + i is , and we can choose A
= 45 degrees.
Thus, =
=
= 16 cis(360)
= 16
( )
cis
n
n
z z nA =
( )
1
8
+ i
2
( )
8
2 cis(845)
( )
1
8
+ i
42
Pause and practice8
Simplify
After computing by hand as in the previous
example, check your answer by calculator.
( )
3
3 i +
43
Roots of complex numbers:
We now use de Moivres Theorem to find roots:
suppose that and we would like to
solve for w in terms of z. Writing the polar forms
of both sides of this equation, we have
or .
Equating the moduli of each side, we have
,
hence .
Since the arguments of each side are equal (or,
differ by a multiple of 360 degrees), there is an
integer k so that
, hence .
w z
n
= = 0
( ) w B cis cis
n
= z A
w nB z A
n
cis cis =
w z
n
=
w z
n
=
nB A k = + 360 B
A k
n
=
+ 360
44
We conclude that the polar form of the n
th
root of
z is
Since k can be any integer, it may appear that
there are infinitely many roots. But since cosine
and sine have period equal to 360, we get
different roots only for k = 0, 1, 2, , n1: when k
= n, we get the same cis value that we got for k
= 0; when k = n+1, we get the same cis value
that we got for k = 1, etc. We conclude that a
nonzero complex number has exactly n n
th
roots.
z z
A k
n
n n
=
+

\

.
 cis
360
45
Example: Find the three cube roots of z = 8.
For the modulus, we have . For the
argument, we have A = 180, so that for k = 0, 1,
2, the three values of
are 60, 180, and 300. Thus, the three cube roots of 
8 are: 2 cis 60, 2 cis 180, and 2 cis 300, which are
simplified as:
The first of these three is the principal root, the one
corresponding to k = 0.
You can try to check these answers on your
calculator, but dont expect to get all three answers.
The TI84 seems to give a real answer, is there is
one. If none of the roots are real, the calculator gives
the principal root. Let us check this for the cube root
of 8. Entering (8)^(1/3) produces an answer of 2,
which is the real root but not the principal root.
= 8 2
3
180 360
3
+ k
1 3 2 1 3 + , ,
46
Pause and practice9
Find the four 4
th
roots of z = 16, and check you
answer on a calculator. You should find that there
are no real roots, so the calculator displays the
principal root:
47
Lesson 2  Quiz
1. Let and . Sketch the
parallelogram determined by Also
sketch the parallelogram determined by
.
2. Find the polar from of .
(a) 2 cis 120 (b) 2 cis 150 (c) 2 cis 210
3. Find the standard form of z = 4 cis 135.
(a) (b) (c)
4. Sketch the vectors representing the two complex
numbers
5 cis 45 and 3 cis 90. Sketch and write the
product in polar form.
(a) 15 cis 135 (b) 8 cis 135 (c) 15 cis
4050
5. Explain why
6. The following are the cube roots of i. Which one
is principal?
(a) (b) (c)
Answers: 2(c), 3(b), 4(a), 6(b)
Solving quadratic equations
Remember that the quadratic formula solves the
quadratic equation "ax
2
+ bx + c = 0" for the
values of x (called zeros of the equation). They
called zeros because they are the values of x that
make y = 0, in the quadratic function y = ax
2
+
bx + c.
Recall that a quadratic equation has two, one, or
no real zeros, depending of the sign of the
discriminant , which appears under the square
root in the quadratic formula:
x
b b ac
a
=
2
4
2
50
Lesson 3: Applications
Two zeros occur when the discriminant is positive.
One zero occurs when the discriminant is zero.
There are no real zeros when the discriminant is
negative.
However, there are zeros if we allow complex numbers.
We illustrate by an example.
Example: Find the zeros of , where c
= 0, 1, 2.
In simple cases such as this, it is more convenient to
find zeros by factoring than by use of the quadratic
formula.
In the case c = 0, we have ,
so the zeros are 0 and 2, and these are the x
intercepts of the graph of the parabola .
In the case c = 1, we have , so x =
1 is the only zero, and the graph of the parabola
has it vertex at (1, 0).
In the case c = 2, the quadratic formula gives no real
roots, but two complex roots 1 i. The graph of the
parabola
lies above the xaxis and has no xintercepts.
x x c
2
2 0 + =
x x x x
2
2 2 = ( )
y x x =
2
x x x
2 2
2 1 1 + = ( )
y x x = +
2
2 1
y x x = +
2
2 2
51
Comparison of the roots of 3 quadratic
equations
Please
compare the
three equations
and the
solutions.
Why the third
equation
doesnt have a
real solution?
Graphically, can
you understand
whether or not
an equation has
a complex root?
52
Pause and practice10
For , find values of c which
illustrate each of the cases above.
The example above shows the existence of
polynomials with no real zeros. By contrast,
polynomials always have zeros if we allow
complex numbers:
x x c
2
4 0 + + =
53
Fundamental Theorem of
Algebra:
54
A polynomial equation of degree at least one has at least one zero in the complex number system.
You may wonder why we should care about zeros being complex numbers. You may expect that
they would provide no useful real world information and should be considered as extraneous.
However, Eulers formula
, where
r is a zero of the quadratic equation
2
+ + = 0. (Those who remember their calculus can check this by plugging =
into the differential equation.) The complex zeros of this quadratic equation give oscillating
solutions via Eulers formula
Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.
Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.
Jederzeit kündbar.