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BIOLOGY

CONCEPTS & CONNECTIONS Fourth Edition


Neil A. Campbell Jane B. Reece Lawrence G. Mitchell Martha R. Taylor

CHAPTER 2 The Chemical Basis of Life


Modules 2.1 2.8
From PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections
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Thomas Eisner and the Chemical Language of Nature Thomas Eisner pioneered chemical ecology
the study of the chemical language of nature

He studies how insects communicate via chemical messages


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Rattlebox moths release a chemical that spiders dont like

This spider caught a rattlebox moth and then let it go

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ATOMS AND MOLECULES 2.1 The emergence of biological function starts at the chemical level

Everything an organism is and does depends on chemistry


Chemistry is in turn dependent on the arrangement of atoms in molecules In order to understand the whole, biologists study the parts (reductionism)

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Molecules and ecosystems are at opposite ends of the biological hierarchy


Each level of organization in the biological hierarchy builds on the one below it

At each level, new properties emerge

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A biological hierarchy

D. Organ: Flight muscle of a moth

Rattlebox moth

C. Cell and tissue: Muscle cell within muscle tissue

Myofibril (organelle)
B. Organelle: Myofibril (found only in muscle cells) Actin

Myosin

Figure 2.1
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A. Molecule: Actin

Atom

2.2 Life requires about 25 chemical elements A chemical element is a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by ordinary chemical means About 25 different chemical elements are essential to life

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Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up the bulk of living matter, but there are other elements necessary for life

Table 2.2
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Goiters are caused by iodine deficiency

Figure 2.2
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2.3 Elements can combine to form compounds Chemical elements combine in fixed ratios to form compounds

Example: sodium + chlorine sodium chloride

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2.4 Atoms consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons The smallest particle of an element is an atom

Different elements have different types of atoms

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An atom is made up of protons and neutrons located in a central nucleus The nucleus is surrounded by electrons

2
2 2
Figure 2.4A

Protons
Nucleus Neutrons Electrons A. Helium atom

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Each atom is held together by attractions between the positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons

Neutrons are electrically neutral

6 6 6
Figure 2.4B

Protons Nucleus Neutrons Electrons B. Carbon atom

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Atoms of each element are distinguished by a specific number of protons


The number of neutrons may vary

Variant forms of an element are called isotopes


Some isotopes are radioactive

Table 2.4
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2.5 Connection: Radioactive isotopes can help or harm us Radioactive isotopes can be useful tracers for studying biological processes PET scanners use radioactive isotopes to create anatomical images

Figure 2.5A
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Figure 2.5B

2.6 Electron arrangement determines the chemical properties of an atom Electrons are arranged in shells
The outermost shell determines the chemical properties of an atom
In most atoms, a full outer shell holds eight electrons

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Atoms whose shells are not full tend to interact with other atoms and gain, lose, or share electrons
Outermost electron shell (can hold 8 electrons) Electron First electron shell (can hold 2 electrons)

HYDROGEN (H) Atomic number = 1

CARBON (C) Atomic number = 6

NITROGEN (N) Atomic number = 7

OXYGEN (O) Atomic number = 8

Figure 2.6
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2.7 Ionic bonds are attractions between ions of opposite charge When atoms gain or lose electrons, charged atoms called ions are created
An electrical attraction between ions with opposite charges results in an ionic bond
+

Na

Cl

Na

Cl

Na Sodium atom
Figure 2.7A

Cl Chlorine atom

Na+ Sodium ion

Cl Chloride ion

Sodium chloride (NaCl)

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Sodium and chloride ions bond to form sodium chloride, common table salt

Na+ Cl

Figure 2.7B
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2.8 Covalent bonds, the sharing of electrons, join atoms into molecules Some atoms share outer shell electrons with other atoms, forming covalent bonds
Atoms joined together by covalent bonds form molecules

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Molecules can be represented in many ways

Table 2.8
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