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# Engr.

## Karla Louise Umali

For several centuries geometry and algebra developed slowly as mathematical disciplines. In 1637, a French mathematician and philosopher, Ren Descartes, published La Gomtrie, which introduced a device for unifying these two branches of mathematics. The basic feature of this new process, now called analytic geometry, is the use of a coordinate system.

A line on which one direction is chosen as positive and the opposite direction as negative is called directed line. A segment of the line, consisting of any two points and the part between is called a directed line segment.

The points A and B determine a segment, which we denote as AB or BA. AB is in the positive direction therefore positive as BA is in the negative direction will be negative. These two distances denoted as AB and BA are called directed distances. =

= = = 3 = = = 3 The absolute value of a real number a , denoted by |a| is positive and the value of zero is zero. Ex. |5| = 5 |-5| = -(-5) |0| = 0

Theorem 1. If A, B and C are three points of a directed line then the directed distances determined by these points satisfy the equations + = + = + =

A basic concept of analytical geometry is the representation of all real numbers by points on a directed line. The set of real numbers can be pictures as points on a line which extends indefinitely in two opposite directions. On this line we choose any point O which we call the origin to represent the number 0. Every point on the line represents to one real number. This relation of the set of real numbers and the set of points on a directed line is called a one-to-onecorrespondence.

The directed line with its points corresponding to real numbers is called real number axis or real number scale. The number corresponding to a point on the axis is called the coordinate of the point. The coordinate of a point on the number axis is considered as the direct distance of the point from the origin.

To be able to see a geometric representation of a mathematical sentence or equation in two variables, there must be a rectangular coordinate plane. This plane is represented by drawing two lines perpendicular to each other and having a common point called the origin. The horizontal line is called the x-axis and the vertical line is called the yaxis.

## The plane is divided into parts called quadrants.

If a point P is placed on the plane, we define the distance of the point from the origin as the directed distance. For every point that will correspond an ordered pair (x,y). The distance from the y-axis is positive if P is at the right of the y-axis and negative if it is at the left. The distance from the yaxis is called the x-coordinate or abscissa. The distance from the x-axis is positive if P is above the x-axis and negative if it is below. The distance from the y-axis is called the y-coordinate or ordinate.

A point of given coordinates is plotted by measuring the proper distances from the axes and marking the point. For example, a given point has a coordinate of (4, 3). The abscissa is 4 while the ordinate is 3.

One of the most important tool in analytical geometry is the formula for the distance between two points. The distance between any two points, or the length of the line segment connecting them, can be determined from the coordinates of the points. We shall classify a line segment as horizontal, vertical or slant, depending on whether the line segment is parallel to the x axis, to the y axis or to neither axis.

## By Theorem 1, for the horizontal line: 1 + 1 2 = 2 1 2 = 2 1 1 2 = 2 1

For the vertical distance: 1 2 = 1 + 2 1 2 = 2 1 1 2 = 2 1

The directed distance from a first point to a second point on a horizontal line is equal to the abscissa of the second point minus the abscissa of the first point. The distance is positive or negative according as the second point is to the right or left of the first point.

Rule 1. The length of the horizontal line segment joining two points is the abscissa of the point on the right minus the abscissa of the point on the left. The length of a vertical line segment joining two points is the ordinate of the upper point minus the ordinate of the lower point.

|AB| = 5 1 =4

## |CD| = 6 (-2) =6+2 =8

|GH| = -2 (-5) = -2 + 5 =3

## |EF| = 1 (-4) =1+4 =5

Considering the points 1 and 2 , we determine a slant line. Draw a line through 1 parallel to the x axis and a line through 2 parallel to the y axis. These two lines intersect at the point R whose abscissa is 2 and the ordinate is 2 .

1 = 2 1 2 = 2 1 By pythagorean theorem |1 2 |2 = 2 1 2 + 2 1 = 2 1 2 + 2 1 2
2

Rule 2. To find the distance between two points, add the square of the difference the abscissas to the square of the ordinates and take the square root of the sum.
Example Find the lengths of the sides of the triangle with the vertices A(-2,-3), B(6,1) and C(-2,5).

## Let P(x,y) the midpoit of 1 2 . 1 1 1 = = = 1 2 1 2 2 Hence, 1 1 1 = = 1 2 1 2

1 1 = = 2 2 1 2 Solving for x and y, 1 + 2 = 2 1 + 2 = 2 Theorem 6. The abscissa of the midpoint of a line segment is half the sum of the abscissas of the endpoints; the ordinate is half the sum of the ordinates.

## Let P(x,y) be any division of the line. Let the ratio of 1 to 1 2 is r. 1 1 = = 1 2 2 1 = 1 + 2 1 1 1 = = 1 2 2 1 = 1 + 2 1

Example The points P1(-4,3) and P2(2,7) determine a line segment. Find the coordinates of the midpoint of the segment, and the coordinates of the trisection point nearer P2.

Seatwork 1. Show that the triangle with vertices at A(-2,4), B(5,1) and C(-6,5) is isosceles. 2. Find the point that is equidistant from A(-2,-3) and B(6,1). 3. A line passes through A(1,1) and B(4,3). Find the coordinates of the point of the line which is three times as far from A to B. 4. If the line segment connecting (x,7) and (10,y) is bisected by the points (8,2), find the values of x and y. 5. Find the coordinates of the point which is 2/5 of the way from (3,2) to (-3,5).

Let a line intersect the x axis at the point M, and consider the angle which has one side to the right of M along the x axis and the other side upward along the line. We call these sides, respectively, the initial side and the terminal side. The inclination of the line is defined as the angle, measured counterclockwise, from the initial side to the terminal side. The inclination of a horizontal line is defined to be zero. In accordance with these definitions, the inclination of a line is such that 0< <180.

is the inclination of the line, MX is the initial side and ML is the terminal side.

The slope of the line is defined as the tangent of its inclination. The slope of a horizontal line is zero. Vertical lines do not have a slope since 90 has no tangent.
Example Draw a line through the point P(-2,2) with 2 slope .
3

Theorem 2. Two nonvertical lines are parallel if and only if their slope are equal.

2 2 1 = = = 1 2 1 Theorem 3. The slope m of a line passing through two given points 1 and 2 is equal to the difference of the ordinates divide the difference of the abscissas taken in the same order 2 1 = 2 1

Example Find the slope of the line through the points (0,4) and (-3,1)

Recalling that an exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the remote interior angles. 1 + = 2 tan 2 1 = tan 2 1 = 1 + tan 1 2

2 1 = 1 + 1 2 Theorem 4. If is an angle, measured counterclockwise, between lines then 2 1 = 1 + 1 2 where 2 is the slope of the terminal side and 1 Is the slope of the initial side.

Theorem 5. Two slant lines are perpendicular if, and only if, the slope of one is the inverse reciprocal of the other. 1 2 = 1

Example Find the tangents of the angles of the triangle whose vertices are A(3,-2), B(-5,8) and C(4.5)

By the use of a coordinate system, many theorems of geometry can be proven with surprising simplicity and directness.
Example Prove that the diagonal of a square with points (-6,-4), (2,-4), (2 ,4) and (-6 ,4) are perpendicular. The diagonals of a rectangle have the same length.

A relation is a set of ordered pairs such that the set of all first ordinates of the ordered pairs is called the domain od the relation and the set of all second coordinates of the ordered pairs is called the range of the relation.

Example The set of number pairs {(-2,-2), (0,1), (2,2), (0,3), (4,0)} defines a relation.
The set {-2, 0, 2, 4} is the domain and the set {-2, 1, 2, 3, 0} is the range.

If for each number x belonging to a set of numbers X there is one and only one corresponding value y, then the set of ordered pair (x,y) is called a function. The set X is called the domain of the function and the set of y values, which indicate by Y, is called the range. Note: The letter x is any value from the set X and y takes any value from the set Y.

The definition of a function requires that for each element of the domain there corresponds a unique element of the range.

The graph of a relation or function consists of the set of all points whose coordinates are ordered pairs of the relation or function. If the relation or function is defined by an equation, the graph of the equation is the same as the graph of the relation or function.

## Example Draw the graph of the function defined by the equation 2x + 3y = 6.

An equation in x and y which is satisfied by the coordinates of all points of a graph and only those points is said to be an equation of the graph.
The procedure for finding the equation of a graph is straightforward. Each point P(x,y) of the graph must satisfy te specified conditions. The desired equation can be written by requiring the point P to obey the conditions

Example A line with slope 2 passes through the point (-3,4). Find the equation of the line.
Find the equation of the set of all points P(x,y) such that the sum of the distances of P from (-5,0) and (5,0) is equal to 14. The line passing through the origin with a slope of 2.

The straight line is the simplest geometric curve. Despite its simplicity, the line is a viral concept of mathematics and enters into our daily experiences in numerous interesting and useful ways. The equation of every straight line is expressible in terms of the first degree. Conversely, the graph of a first degree equation is a straight line.

Slope Intercept Form We let m the slope and b the ordinate of the intersection point of the line, apply the formula of a line through two points

= 0

= + This equation makes evident the slope and y intercept of the line which it represents, and is said to be in the slope-intercept form

## Point Slope Form

1 = 1 1 = ( 1 )

Two point form The equation of a line that passes through two distinct points P1(x1 ,y1) and P2(x2 ,y2) for 2 1 which x2 x1 is found by computing =
and using the point slope form 1 = ( 1 ) 2 1 1 = ( 1 ) 2 1
2 1

Intercept Form

A line intersects the x-axis at (a,0) and the y-axis at (0,b). The numbers a and b are called the intercepts of the line. + =1

## Distance from a point to a line + + = 2 + 2

Parameters are quantities fixed for any particular line but change from line to line. In the slope-intercept form, m and b are the parameters. A linear equation with one parameter represents lines all with a particular property. For example, the equation y=3x + b represents a line with slope 3 and y-intercept b. We consider b a parameter which may assume any real value. Since the slope is the same for all values of b, the equation represents a set of parallel lines.

Example Write the equation of the family of lines that is perpendicular to 3x-2y=5.

A circle is the locus of a point moving in a plane in such a way that its distance from a fixed point remains constant. The fixed point is the center and the constant distance is the radius of the circle.

( )2 +( )2 = 2

## If h=k=0, then the equation is 2 + 2 = 2 General Form of the equation of a circle 2 + 2 + + + = 0

Example The equation of the circle with center at (3,-1) and radius 2 Find the center and radius of the circle 4 2 + 4 2 4 + 12 15 = 0