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Bulla(e)

- Is a circumscribed, elevated lesion that is more than 5mm in diameter, usually contains serous fluid, and looks like a blister.

Lobule and lobulated


- Is a segment or lobe that is a part of the whole; these lobes sometimes appear fused togueder.

Pedunculated
- attached by a stemlike or stalklike base similar to that of a mushroom.

Sessile
- describing the base of a lesion that is flat or broad instead of stemlike.

Nodule
- Is a palpable solid lesion up to 1cm in diameter found in soft tissue, it can occur above, level with, or beneath the skin surface.

Pustules
- Is a variously sized circumscribed elevations containing pus.

Vesicle
- Is a small, elevated lesion less than 1cm in diameter that contains serous fluid.

Retrocuspid Papillae
- Is a sessile nodule on the gingival margin of the lingual aspect of the mandibular cuspids.

Fistula
- Is

Attrition
Is the wearing away of tooth structure during mastication. Is normal occurrence as the individual ages.

Involve incisal, occlusal, and proximal surfaces of deciduous and permanent. Slow process, starts as tooth are in contact. Influenced by diet: fibrous food increases it. Men more affected. First signs: disappearance of the mamelons.

Abrasion
Is the pathologic wearing away of tooth structure that results from a repetitive mechanical habit.

Slow process, the dentine responds by laying down a protective layer of secondary dentine. Presents as a notching of the root surface in areas of gingival recession. Cause: improper tooth brushing technique (back-forth scrubbing motion, excessive pressure). Other: opening bobby pins with teeth, holding needles or pins, musicians who play wind instruments, pipe smokers.

Abfraction
Is an injury to the teeth. Wedgeshaped lesion at the cervical area of teeth.

Related to fatigue, fracture, deformation of tooth structures. Tooth brushing may cause it.

Erosion
Is the lost of tooth structure resulting from chemical action.

May occur in the smooth facial and lingual surfaces, and on the proximal and occlusal surfaces. Area appears smooth and polished. Occurs in an area where restorations exist. Causing agents: soft drinks, acid in air in the chemical plants, bulimia, sucking on lemons.

Aspirin Burn (acetylsalicylic acid)


Occurs when a patient with a toothache places an aspirin tablet directly on the painful tooth instead of swallowing.

Aspirin is an analgesic and antiinflammatory agent, must be ingested to be effective. The tissue becomes necrotic and appears white, may separates from the underlying connective tissue and slough off resulting in a large ulcer. Painful. Heals slowly.

ThermalBurn
Occurs on the soft mucosa of the palate and tongue from hot food or liquid.

Painful erythema and superficial ulceration.

Hematoma
A lesion that results from accumulation of blood within tissue as a result from trauma.

Red-purple to bluish gray mass most frequently on the labial or buccal mucosa. No treatment, will spontaneously resolve.

Mucocele
- forms when a salivary gland duct is severed and the mucous salivary gland secretion spills into the adjacent connective tissue. Not a true cyst because it is not lined with epithelium. Swelling in the tissue that increases and decreases in size. Most common on the lower lip, in children & adoldescents. Can be clear to bluish in color. If chronic may need surgical excision
Causes: severed salivary gland duct.

Solar Cheilitis
- Is a degeneration of tissue of the lips related to the cumulative wxposure to sunlight and the amount of skin pigmentation. Vermillion border is affected. Color appears pale, pinkish, mottled.

Frictional Keratosis
- Chronic rubbing or friction against an oral mucosal surface that may results in a thickening of the keratin on the surface, called hyperkeratosis.
Looks as an opaque, white appearance of the tissue and represents a protective response like a callous on the hand. Cause: tobacco pouch, chewing on cheeks.

Ranula
- Is a mucocele like lesion that forms unilaterally on the floor of the mouth.
Associated with the ducts of the sublingual and submandibular glands. Resembles the outpouching that occurs under the jaw of the frog when croaking.. Treated by surgery, the cause of obstruction (often a salivary gland stone) must be removed.

Tobacco Pouch Keratosis


- A white lesion usually in the mucobuccal fold.
Caused by tobacco chewing. Epthelium has granular or wrinkled appearance (corrugated) in early lesions. Long time exposure may be more opaquely white and have a corrugated surface. Increased risk for squanous cell carcinoma

Traumatic ulcer
- Occurs as a result of some form of trauma. Causes: biting lip, tongue or cheek; loose or tight fitting partial or denture; sharp edges of food; the removal of a dry cotton roll from the oral tissue after a dental procedure. If injury persistent it may result in a hard (indurated), raised lesion called a traumatic granuloma.

Gingival Enlargement
is an increase in the bulk of free and attached gingiva, involving the interdental papillae.

No stippling is seen, gingival margins are rounded. May be generalized or localized. Tissue appear red, normal, or paler. Cause: response to chronic inflammation, idiopathic, medications (phenytoin, calcium channel blockers), drug reaction, hormonal changes, genetic, local factors.

Chronic Hyperplastic Pulpitis or Pulp Polyp


- Is an excessive proliferation of chronically inflamed dental pulp tissue
Occurs in teeth with large, open carious lesions. Asymptomatic, insensitive, appears as a red or pink nodule of tissue that fills the entire cavity of the tooth. Treat by either extraction or endodontic treatment. Causes: dental caries.

Acute Necrotized Ulcerated Gingivites (ANUG)


Brought on by stress and/or smoking, poor nutrition, mouth infections. Affects ages from 15-35. Painful infection , if untreated leads to destruction of tissues, undermines the support of the teeth leading to tooth loss. Symptoms: Painful, bleeding gingiva, irritation, reddened and swollen, grayish film on gingiva, crater-like ulcers, foul taste in the mouth, halitosis. Treatment: Antibiotics, possible surgery, professional cleanings, irrigation (salt water, peroxide solution), balanced diet, no smoking/hot/spicy food.

Fordyce Granules
Are clusters of sebaceous glands. ectopic

Common on the buccal mucosa and border of lips. Appear as tiny yellow lobules in clusters. Asymptomatic. No treatment . Cause: variant of normal.

Torus Palatinus
An outgrowth compact bone. of normal

Common in women. At midline of palate (lingual aspect of mandible mandibular tori). Asymptomatic. No treatment. . Cause: genetic.

Lingual Varicosities
Are prominent lingual veins.

On ventral and lateral surfaces of the tongue. Red-to-purple


Cause: aging process.

Leukoedema
A generalized opalescence imparted to the buccal mucosa.

Most commonly observed in blaclk adults. Gray-white film. If the mucosa is stretched the opalescence becomes less prominent. More pronounced in smokers. Cannot be removed. Benign.

Linea Alba
A white line that extends anteroposteriorly on the buccal mucosa along the occipital plane.

Cause; clenching/bruxing habit.

Fibrous Hyperplasia
Also known as denture induced fibrous hyperplasia or inflammatory hyperplasia.

Located in the vestibule along the denture border is composed of dense, fibrous connective tissue surfaced by stratified squamous epithelium. Appear as elongated folds of tissue into which the denture flange fits. The surface is ulcerated. Doesnt resolve with the removal of the denture, require surgical removal of excess tissue. Cause: ill-fitting denture.

Papillary Hyperplasia of the Palate


Is a form of denture stomatitis, appear at the palatal mucosa.

Is covered by multiple erythematous papillary projections that give the area a granular appearance. Composed of fibrous connective tissue usually chronically inflamed and surfaced by stratified squamous epithelium. Doesnt resolve with the removal of the denture, require surgical removal of excess tissue. Cause: ill-fitting denture.

Melanin Pigmentation
Gives color to the skin, mucosa, gingiva.

Most commonly observed in dark skinned individuals.

Pyogenic Granuloma or Pregnancy tumor


Proliferation of connective tissue containing numerous blood vessels and inflammatory cells. Does not produce pus (pyogenic) and is not a true granuloma.

Is ulcerated, soft to palpation, bleeds easily, deep red color, may be sessile or pedunculated. Most commonly observed in the gingiva but also on the lips, tongue, and buccal mucosa. May need surgical excision. Cause: response to injury, puberty, pregnancy.

Median Rhomboid Glossitis


Appears as a flat or slightly oval/rectangular erythematous (red) area in the midline of the dorsal surface of the tongue, beginning at the junction of the anterior and middle thirds and extending posterior to the circumvallate papillae.

Smooth texture.

Cause: associate with candida.


DO NOT CONFUSE WITH GEOGRAPHIC TONGUE.

Geographic Tongue or Benign Migratory Glossitis


Appears as diffuse area devoid of filiform papillae on the dorsal and lateral borders of the tongue. Erythematous patches surrounded by white/yellow perimeter. Fungiform papillae appear distinct within the erythematous patch.

Patient may complain of a burning discomfort. Exacerbated by stress. Cause: genetic.

Hairy Tongue
Elongated filiform papillae on the dorsal midposterior tongue.

The patient has an increased accumulation of keratin on the filiform papillae that results in a white hairy appearance. The papillae are brown/black due to chromogenic bacteria. Cause: associated with smoking, alcohol. Treatment: brush the tongue.

Fissure Tongue
The distal surface of the tongue have deep fissures or groves.

May become irritated if food debris collects.

Treatment: brush the tongue.

Amalgam Tatoo
Is a flat, bluish-gray lesion on the oral mucosa.

Caused by amalgam particles under the skin. Occur at placement or removal of amalgam restoration. May appear on radiograph.

Angular Cheilitis
Is a lesion on the commissures. labial

Often caused by candida albicans or can be from nutritional deficiency (B-Complex Vit).

Nicotine Stomatitis
Is a benign lesion on the hard palate.

First sign due to heat is erythema. Advanced sign include increase in keratization and raised red dots are seen at the openings of the minor salivary gland on the palate Cause: smoking.

Irritation Fibroma
Is a broad-based, dense scarlike connective tissue containing few blood vessels. Surface of pink color is covered by stratified squamous epithelium which makes it appear opaque and white.

Occurs as a result of chronic trauma usually on the cheek (buccal mucosa chewing/biting) also occurs on the tongue, lips, and palate. Is less than 1cm in diameter. Usually surgically removed.