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Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Dr. Garland Crawford

John Dalton and the Atomic Theory of Matter


Elements are composed of extremely small, particles called atoms. All atoms of a given element are identical, having the same size, mass, and chemical properties. The atoms of one element are different from the atoms of other elements. Compounds are atoms of different elements united in fixed proportions (AB, AB2, A2B3) In a chemical reaction, no atoms are created, destroyed, or broken apart but rearranged to produce new compounds

The Atomic Theory


All the oxygen molecules are identical CO2 forms when carbon atoms combine with two oxygen atoms All atoms present before the reaction are present after the reaction

The Atomic Theory


Law of definite proportions Joseph Proust - all samples of a compound contain the same elements in the same mass ratio
Sample Mass of O (g) Mass of C (g) Ratio (g O : g C)

123 g carbon dioxide


50.5 g carbon dioxide 88.6 g carbon dioxide

89.4
36.7 64.4

33.6
13.8 24.2

2.66:1
2.66:1 2.66:1

The Atomic Theory Law of multiple proportions - If two elements form more than one compound between them, then the ratios of the masses of the second element which combine with a fixed mass of the first element will be ratios of small whole numbers

The Atomic Theory

O to C ratio in CO2 O to C ratio in CO

2 1

The Structure of the Atom


Is the Dalton atom divisible?

The Structure of the Atom


When metal plates are connected to a high-voltage source, the negatively charged plate, or cathode, emits a ray. The cathode ray is drawn to the anode.

Cathode (-)

Anode (+)

The Structure of the Atom


Cathode rays Deflected by magnetic or electric fields Mass/Charge Ratio determined by J.J. Thompson Composed of electrons - negatively charged particles

The Structure of the Atom


R. A. Millikan measured the charge of an electron with great precision.

charge 1.6022 10 19 C 28 mass of an electron = = = 9.10 10 g 8 charge / mass 1.76 10 C/g

Early Model of the Atom


Atoms contain negatively charged electrons Atoms are neutral How is the positive charge evenly distributed?

The Structure of the Atom


Radioactive decay: Alpha () rays - positively charged Beta () rays - negatively charge

Gamma () rays - no charge; very high energy waves

The Structure of the Atom


Ernest Rutherford Used particles to study the atoms in gold foil

The Structure of the Atom


Rutherfords new model for the atom the Planetary Model:

Positive charge is concentrated in the nucleus


The nucleus accounts for most of an atoms mass A typical atomic radius is about 100 pm (1 Angstrom) A typical nucleus has a radius of about 5 x 103 pm

The Structure of the Atom


Protons - positively charged particles in the nucleus Neutrons - electronically neutral particles in the nucleus Electrons negatively charged, distributed around the nucleus

Understanding the Atom


The basics of atomic structure What do we know about subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, electrons)? What do we know about electrons? How do we know about the structure of the atom? Why is it important?

John Dalton and the Atomic Theory of Matter


Elements are composed of extremely small, particles called atoms. All atoms of a given element are identical, having the same size, mass, and chemical properties. The atoms of one element are different from the atoms of other elements. Compounds are atoms of different elements united in fixed proportions (AB, AB2, A2B3) In a chemical reaction, no atoms are created, destroyed, or broken apart but rearranged to produce new compounds

Atomic Number and Mass Number


Atoms are identified by the number of protons and neutrons they contain Elemental symbol Abbreviation for element Atomic number (Z) - the number of protons in the nucleus Mass number (A) - the total number of protons and neutrons
Mass number (number of protons + neutrons) Atomic number (number of protons)

X Z

Elemental symbol

Isotopes!

Isotopes of an element have the same atomic number, but different mass numbers

Atomic Number, Mass Number, and Isotopes


Most elements have two or more isotopes

1 1

2 1

3 1

hydrogen 1 proton 0 neutrons

deuterium 1 proton 1 neutron

tritium 1 proton 2 neutrons

Isotopes of the same element exhibit similar chemical properties

How many neutrons are in the following atom?

35 17

Cl

The Atomic Mass Scale and Average Atomic Mass Molecular mass is measured in a mass spectrometer

The Atomic Mass Scale and Average Atomic Mass

The Atomic Mass Scale and Average Atomic Mass


Atomic mass is the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu). 1 amu = 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom The atomic weight on the periodic table represents the average mass of the naturally occurring mixture of isotopes.
Isotopic mass (amu) Natural abundance (%)

Isotope
12C
13C

12.00000
13.003355

98.93
1.07

Average mass (C) = (0.9893)(12.00000 amu) + (0.0107)(13.003355 amu) Average mass (C) = 12.01 amu

The Atomic Mass Scale and Average Atomic Mass


The atomic mass and natural abundances of the two stable isotopes of copper are given below. Calculate the average atomic mass.

Isotope
63Cu 65Cu

Isotopic mass (amu)

Natural abundance (%) 69.17


30.83

62.929599
64.927793

The Periodic Table


Elements with similar chemical and physical properties are grouped together

The Periodic Table


Elements can be categorized as metals, nonmentals or metalloids. Metals - good conductors of heat and electricity Nonmetals - poor conductors of heat or electricity Metalloids - have intermediate properties

The Periodic Table


Horizontal rows are called periods Vertical columns are called groups or families

The Periodic Table

Compounds
Molecular Compounds Ionic Compounds

Molecules and Molecular Compounds


Molecule - a combination of at least two atoms held together by chemical bonds

May be an element or a compound


Diatomic molecules - contain two atoms and may be either heteronuclear or homonuclear. Polyatomic molecules - contain more than two atoms.

Molecules and Molecular Compounds


Chemical formula denotes the composition of a substance

Molecular formula denotes the exact number of atoms of each element in a molecule Structural formula shows the elemental composition and the general arrangements

Molecules and Molecular Compounds


Binary molecular compounds

Nomenclature:
1) Name the first element that appears in the formula

2) Name the second element that appears in the formula, changing its ending to ide.
Examples: HCl HI hydrogen chloride hydrogen iodide.

Molecules and Molecular Compounds


Greek prefixes denote the number of atoms of each element present Examples: SO2 CO sulfur dioxide carbon monoxide N 2 O5 dinitrogen pentoxide

The prefix mono- is generally omitted for the first element.

Molecules and Molecular Compounds


Name the following binary molecular compounds:
(a) Cl2O (b) SiCl4

Molecules and Molecular Compounds


Write the formula for the following compounds (a) carbon disulfide (b) dinitrogen trioxide

Molecules and Molecular Compounds


Acid - a substance that produces hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water HCl is an example To name these types of acids: 1) remove the gen ending from hydrogen 2) change the ide ending on the second element to ic. hydrogen chloride + ic acid hydrochloric acid

Molecules and Molecular Compounds


Acid - a substance that produces hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water Examples: HF HCl HBr HI hydrofluoric acid hydrochloric acid hydrobromic acid hydroiodic acid

Molecules and Molecular Compounds


Organic compounds contain carbon and hydrogen, sometimes in combination with other atoms

Hydrocarbons contain only carbon and hydrogen

Molecules and Molecular Compounds


Molecular formulas give the exact number of each type of element in a compound. Empirical formulas give the simplest ratio of elements in a compound.

Molecules and Molecular Compounds

Molecules and Molecular Compounds


Write the empirical formula for the following compound:

C8H10N4O2
A) C8H10N4O2 B) C4H5N2O1 C)C6H5N4O1 D)C4H10N2O2

Compounds
Molecular Compounds Ionic Compounds

Ions and Ionic Compounds


An atomic ion or monatomic ion - consists of just one atom with a positive or negative charge.
Na Atom 11 protons 11 electrons Na+ Ion 11 protons 10 electrons

Cl Atom 17 protons 17 electrons

Cl Ion 17 protons 18 electrons

Ions and Ionic Compounds


Cations formed by the loss of one or more electrons from an atom Cations have a positive charge.
Na Atom 11 protons 11 electrons Na+ Ion 11 protons 10 electrons

Ions and Ionic Compounds


Anions formed by the gain of one or more electrons to an atom Anions have a negative charge
Cl Atom 17 protons Cl Ion 17 protons

17 electrons

18 electrons

Ions and Ionic Compounds


Atoms can lose or gain more than one electron.

Ions and Ionic Compounds


A monatomic anion is named by changing the ending of the elements name to ide. Cl is chloride O2 is oxide

Some metals can form cations of more than one possible charge. Fe2+ : ferrous ion [Fe(II)] Fe3+ : ferric ion [Fe(III)] Mn2+ : manganese(II) ion Mn3+ : manganese(III) ion Mn4+ : manganese(IV) ion

Ions and Ionic Compounds

Polyatomic ions consist of a combination of two or more atoms

You need to know table 2.9 in your text: - Name - Formula - Charge

Ions and Ionic Compounds


Formulas for ionic compounds are generally empirical formulas.

Ionic compounds are electronically neutral.

Ions and Ionic Compounds


The sum of the charges on the cation and anion in each formula must be zero. Aluminum oxide:

Al3+

O2

Al2O3
Sum of charges: 2(+3) + 2(3) = 0

Ions and Ionic Compounds


To name ionic compounds: 1) Name the cation
.

omit the word ion


use a Roman numeral if the cation can have more than one charge

2) Name the anion


omit the word ion Examples: NaCN FeCl2 sodium cyanide iron(II) chloride

FeCl3

iron(III) chloride

Ions and Ionic Compounds


Oxoanions - polyatomic anions that contain one or more oxygen atoms and one atom of another element. Starting with the oxoanions whose names end in ate, the following can be used to name other oxoanions in the same family: 1) The ion with one more O atom than the ate ion is - is perchlorate) called per . . . ate ion. (ClOis chlorate; ClO 3 4 2) The ion with one less O atom than the ate anion is called the ite ion. (ClO2 is chlorite) 3) The ion with two fewer O atoms than the ate ion is called the hypo . . . ite ion (ClO- is hypochlorite)

Ions and Ionic Compounds


Oxoacids are acids that contain oxoanions.

1) An acid based on the ate ion is called . . . ic acid


HClO3 is chloric acid

2) An acid based on the ite ion is called . . . ous acid


HClO2 is chlorous acid

3) Prefixes in oxoanion names are retained in the name of the acid.


HClO4 is perchloric acid HClO is hypochlorous acid

Ions and Ionic Compounds


Hydrates - compounds with a specific number of water molecules within their solid structure.

CuSO4 5 H2O

copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate