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# Illumination

(Lighting Engineering)
Lecture notes Power Distribution & Utilization By Abid Mushtaq

Illumination

Light is

emitted and absorbed in tiny "packets" called photons, exhibits properties of both waves and particles simply a very small part of the electromagnetic spectrum, sandwiched between ultraviolet and infrared radiation.

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Visible Spectrum 700 nm

400 nm

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Primary properties of light are Intensity, Propagation direction, Frequency or wavelength spectrum, and polarization, while its speed, about 300,000,000 meters per second (300,000 kilometers per second) in a vacuum, is one of the fundamental constants of nature.

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Illumination: To provide light to a surface is called illumination. The required level of light may vary from surface to surface and purpose to purpose. For example , in a drawing room, we need more illumination than in verandah. A watch repairer needs high illumination (in the form of direct light) as compared to the illumination required in a reading room.

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Some Important Term: Luminous flux: It is the energy radiated (in the form of light waves) by a body per second. Luminous or Radiant Efficiency: The ratio between the energy radiated in the form of light to the total energy radiated (in all forms i.e, heat etc) is known as Radiant energy(rad.)

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Solid angle: The angle subtended by an area at a point is called solid angle.

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Lumen:

It is the unit of luminous flux and may be defined as luminous flux, emitted per unit solid angle, from a light source of 1 candle power (C.P).

Lumen = Candle Power x Solid Angle = C.P x Total Luminous flux emitted by the source of 1 C.P = 4 lumens

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Candle Power: We have seen that Lumen = C.P x C.P = Lumen/ The candle power may be defined as:

the number of lumens emitted by a source per unit solid angle in a given direction. It represents the light emitting capacity of a source.

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Foot Candle:

It is the unit of illumination. It is the illumination of the inside of a sphere of radius 1ft with a source of 1 C.P at its centre.

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Some Important Concepts:

Transmission

When light passes through an object, it is called transmission. Absorption, reflection, refraction, and diffusion all affect light transmission.

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Absorption

Instead of completely transmitting light, an object can absorb part or all of the incident light, usually by converting it into heat. Many materials absorb some wavelengths while transmitting others, which is called selective absorption. Sky, snow etc? Glass filters: Sunglasses

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Filtering

A transmissive filter is a material that absorbs some wavelengths and transmits others, while a reflective filter absorbs some wavelengths and reflects others.

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Diffusion (Scattering)

When light strikes a perfectly smooth surface, the reflection is laminar, When light strikes a rough surface, the light is reflected or transmitted in many different directions at once, which is called diffusion or scattering.

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Laws of Illumination:
The Inverse Square Law: The illumination at a point on a surface when the surface is perpendicular to the direction of the source varies directly with the luminous intensity of the source and inversely with the square of the distance between the source and the point:

where: E = illumination in footcandles (or lux) I = luminous intensity in candlepower (or candela) d = distance in feet (or meters)

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## Lamberts Cosine Law

The illumination of any surface varies as the cosine of the angle of incidence, , where the angle of incidence is the angle between the normal to the surface and the direction of the incident light. Combined with the equation just given, the formula becomes:

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## Incandescence Electric Discharge Arc formation Electro-luminance Photo-luminance

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Light is emitted from a body due to any of the following phenomenon. Incandescence

Solids and liquids emit visible radiation when they are heated to temperatures about 1000K. As the temperature increases, the intensity increases and the appearance becomes whiter.

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Electric Discharge

When an electric current is passed through a gas the atoms and molecules emit radiation whose spectrum is characteristic of the elements present. Electrons fall from High to low energy levels resulting in infrared, visible light, or ultraviolet radiation

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Electro luminescence

Light is generated when electric current is passed through certain solids such as semiconductor or phosphor materials. Used for