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TEXTUAL GRAMMAR

Grammar of Texts

Grammar of sentences

TEXT
TEXTURE MORE THAN ONE SENTENCE

MEANINGFUL UNIT

FULLY FUNCTIONAL / NON STRUCTURAL

INTERPRETATION RELEVANT TO THE ENVIRONMENT


INFORMATIVE COHESIVE

COHERENT

TEXT
COHESION OLD-NEW INFORMATION THEME-RHEME

THEME PROGRESSION
LEXICAL COHESION CO-REFERENCE

COLLOCATION CONTEXT

REFERENCE

SENTENTIAL HIERARCHY CLAUSE

CLAUSE

phrase phrase
Wo Wo Wo

phrase
Wo

phrase

Wo

Wo

asking you

to

believe

Break in structural continuity

sentences clauses phrases

words
morphemes phonemes

Immediate constituent analysis

SITUATION

Break in structural continuity


sentences clauses phrases

words
morphemes phonemes

SITUATION

Non verbal

sentences clauses phrases

Verbal

words
morphemes phonemes

SITUATION

Non structural

sentences clauses phrases

Structural

words
morphemes phonemes

CONSTITUENT

FORM

FUNCTION

FUNCTION

CONSTITUENT
FORM

phrase

am asking

phrase

AUX

VERB

I am asking (you) PREDICATOR


phrase

AUX

VERB

clause

Function2 Function1 Form1 Form2 Form3 Form4

Function1 Form1 Form2 Form3

Form1

Form2

PREDICATOR HEAD am asking PRN: I

HEAD asking AUX: am

ask

PROGR affix

FUNCTION

CONSTITUENT
FORM

I am asking
sentence

NP
sentence

VP

I am asking
sentence

The notion of cohesion refers to the way sentences combine so as to ensure that there is propositional development

PROPOSITION I am asking
sentence

SITUATION

The notion of cohesion refers to the way sentences combine so as to ensure that there is propositional development

I am asking. I hope you answer.

SITUATION

The notion of cohesion refers to the way sentences combine so as to ensure that there is propositional development

SITUATION

The notion of cohesion refers to the way sentences combine so as to ensure that there is propositional development

2 PROPOSITIONS I am asking. I hope you answer.

SITUATION

The notion of cohesion refers to the way sentences combine so as to ensure that there is propositional development

2 PROPOSITIONS
2 SENTENCES

SITUATION

A text is fully functional


non-structural

functional

2 PROPOSITIONS I am asking. I hope you answer.

SITUATION

(x)=y 6+x=3

Predicate (A)=p Verb (subject)=proposition

Situational context (P1 , P2 Pn )=TEXT SC (P1 [u1], P2 [u2], Pn [un] )=TEXT

(x)=y 6+x=3

Predicate (A)=p Verb (subject)=proposition

Situational context (P1 , P2 Pn )=TEXT SC (P1 [v1], P2 [v2], Pn [vn] )=TEXT


Resolved

(x)=y 6+x=3

Predicate (A)=p Verb (subject)=proposition

Situational context (P1 , P2 Pn )=TEXT


non-verbal verbal

(to the context)

COHERENT

to itself (cohesive)

COHERENCE non linear

COHESION linear

SIGNALS of relations among surface elements


(Beaugrande & Dressler 1981)

COHERENCE non linear

COHESION linear

surface DEPENDENCIES
(Halliday and Hassan 1977)

COHERENCE non linear

COHESION linear
Relations of MEANING that exist within the text, and that define it as TEXT where the INTERPRETATION of some element in the discourse is DEPENDENT on that of another. The one presupposes the other, in the sense that it cannot be effectively DECODED except by recourse to it (Halliday and Hassan 1977).

COHERENCE non linear

COHESION linear

overt dependency A
t

COHERENCE non linear

COHESION linear

overt dependency A
t

COHERENCE non linear

COHESION linear

overt dependency

-Sam wants to speak.


A Shall he come in?
t

COHERENCE non linear

COHESION linear

A -Sam wants to speak. Shall he come in? B

overt dependency A
t

COHERENCE non linear

COHESION linear

overt dependency

-Let me say this:


A You are a baby, Lily!
t

COHERENCE non linear

COHESION linear

overt dependency

-Let me say this:


A You are a baby, Lily!
t

COHERENCE non linear

COHESION linear

overt dependency

-Let me say this:


A You are a baby, Lily!
t

COHERENCE non linear

COHESION linear

A -Let me say this: You are a baby, Lily! B

overt dependency A
t

COHERENCE non linear

COHESION linear

A -Let me say this: You are a baby, Lily! B

overt dependency A
t

SC ( P1 [v1], P2 [v2], Pn [vn] )=TEXT


Resolved

COHERENCE non linear

COHESION linear

A SEMANTIC property of DISCOURSE formed through the interpretation of each individual SENTENCE relative to the interpretation of other sentences, with "interpretation" implying interaction between the text and the reader (van Dijk 1979).

COHERENCE non linear

COHESION linear

A COVERT POTENTIAL meaning relationship among parts of a text, made overt by the reader or listener through PROCESSES of INTERPRETATION. (Blum & Kulka 1986:17).

COHERENCE non linear

COHESION linear

[when] the components of the TEXTUAL WORLD, i.e. the configuration of CONCEPTS and RELATIONS which UNDERLIE THE TEXT are MUTUALLY accessible and relevant. (de Beaugrande 1981)

COHERENCE non linear

COHESION linear

6+x=8 8=6+x
convergent state of conceptual stability

6+2=8

*6+3=8
*7+2=8

He went to sleep. He hadnt slept for two days.

He went to sleep. He hadnt slept for two days.


COHERENCE
COHESION Lexical cohesion

He went to sleep. He hadnt slept for two days.


COHERENCE EVENT (x) COHERENCE Lexical cohesion

EVENT (x)
Hadnt slept > went to sleep Hadnt slept CAUSE went to sleep

co-reference repetition
tense reference