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Radio Network Optimisation

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Main Topics
What is network optimisation? Why optimisation? Aim of network optimisation Advantages for the customer Planning vs. optimising Major problem areas Radio optimisation related processes Tuning Test types Measurement analysis Change request and action Acceptance tests Ongoing optimising Pre-analysis: general network check Customer complaints analysis Collect/analyse OMC statistics Collect/analyse drive test measurements Implement changes Test mobile Repeated call setups Continuous call Statistics 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 11 11 12 13 14 Concept for optimisation Analysis programs Problem symptoms Coverage analysis Test mobile measurements Possible problem areas Antenna configuration Antenna types - typical beam patterns Antenna fine tuning Omni vs. sectorised Vertical antenna beam Tilting Antennadiversity type Verification of RF network design Site check Antenna isolation Site physical configuration Site-to-site distances and distribution Special features for improving coverage Cell splitting, sectorisation DTM check Propagation model verification Link budget analysis 14 15 15 16 16 17 18 18 19 20 20 21 22 23 23 24 25 25 26 26 27 27 28

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Main Topics (continued)


Dropped call analysis Call setup analysis MAXRETR Handover performance analysis Handover parameters Consequence of missing neighbours Consequence of many neighbour definitions Handover measurements Handover parameters Radio link measurements Handover algorithm Handover criteria - quality Handover decision Intracell handover Level handovers Distance handover Power budget handover Cell reselection Speech quality analysis Downlink interference measurement Frequency changes BSIC optimisation 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 33 34 36 37 37 38 39 40 40 41 43 43 44 45 Call setup/handover mechanisms Location area codes Interference reduction Power control Frequency hopping DTX Channel configuration Capacity enhancements Adding TRX Interference reduction features Traffic load distribution Call setup/handover mechanisms Hierarchical cell structures Concentric cells Overlaid micro-and picocells Microcell frequency planning Speed sensitive handovers Half rate coding/dual rate operation Cell parameter optimisation Performance measurements 45 46 46 47 48 49 50 50 51 51 52 52 53 53 54 54 55 55 56 56

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What is Network Optimisation?


Improving Capacity, Quality and General Performance of the

existing Network Infrastructure

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Why Optimisation?
Coverage holes

Performance degradation by interference


Different subscriber distribution compared to that assumed for

the network design Unexpectedly high subscriber growth Extensive network expansions ongoing Frequency resources at the limit Unexpected mobility profile of subscribers

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Aim of Network Optimisation


Improved Network Quality

Speech quality, Call success rate, Call setup time Service area , Radio Coverage Increase in subscriber potential

Improved Network Availability

Optimised utilisation of installed equipment

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Advantages for the Customer


Optimum utilization of the system Reduced subscriber complaints
Optimised subscriber satisfaction

resources Minimized costs

Increased Profit

One step ahead of the Competitors

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Planning vs. Optimising


Thorough network planning from start can reduce the optimisation effort

significantly! In a poorly planned network, achievable optimisation effects without major re-design are rather marginal A close link between the two activities is necessary
Be involved

Feedback result

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Major Problem Areas


no coverage
interference blocking handover not working HW/SW failures

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Radio Optimisation Related Processes


Tuning
Acceptance Tests Ongoing Optimisation

The following processes involve optimisation related activities

Tuning Process

drive tests adjustment of network parameters

Acceptance tests Ongoing Optimisation

Repeated quality control and improvement as network grows / matures

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Tuning
Test Measurement Measurement Analyzing Change Request Action

Repeat Process until Agreed Quality

Objectives :

Verify network configuration against current planning status Identify and eliminate equipment faults (HW/SW) and installation errors Ensure that the network is ready for acceptance testing

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Test Types
Continuous drive test

setup a test call and drive over an area for detecting lack of coverage, missing handovers, interferences etc.
detail measurement to be taken at dedicated problem spots for detail analyzing of specific problem

Spot test

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Measurement Analysis
Antenna Installation check

height, orientation and tilt


OMC

Basic cell parameters and functions

BCCH, BSIC, CI, LAC Neighbour List, consistency HO and power parameters Call Setup on all timeslots and speech quality check HO to other sectors or other neighbours

Test measurement (TEMS etc. together with a GPS)



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Signal Strength Co-channel and adjacent interference Handover relations


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Change Request and Action


SBS System Database

Change BCCH to avoid interference Change HO-Margin Add neighbour relations (Mutual) Antenna tilt etc. Software bugs Transmission sync. (ADPCM)

Site Hardware

System error

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Acceptance Tests
Setup Test Scenario
Setup Test Scenario Test Purpose Test Definitions

Performing Test

Test Result

Test Routes Test Procedure Test Duration Acceptance Criteria

Coverage Criteria Coverage Area Successful Call

Test Analysis

Test Results

Test Condition Test Equipment Test Methodology

Signal Level Signal Quality Handover Call Success Rate

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Ongoing Optimising
For improvement of the network after it is launched and filled

up by subscribers
Pre-analysis: General network check Collect / analyse complaints Collect / analyse OMC statistics Collect / analyse drive test measuremts Propose / implement changes

Repeat process until agreed quality

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Pre-analysis: General Network Check


Steps to be carried out:

Kick-off meeting Determine original network planning objectives Collect information about network status Determine functional network structure, e.g.
- BTS / BSC locations., antenna direction etc. - services and features used - network structure (macrocell, microcell etc.)

Determine the network element configuration, e.g.


- number of TRX per cell - sector / omni config.

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Visit selected sites (if necessary) Database analysis


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Customer Complaints Analysis


Additional source of information, but difficult to handle
Customer service desk must collect all relevant information

Caller and Called No. (PSTN->MS, etc.) What is the problem? (Voice Quality, Cant make a call, etc.) MS is moving or fixed while make call Where did the problem occur? When?

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Collect / Analyse OMC Statistics


OMC Measurement

Handled traffic (congestion on TCH, SDCCH) dropped calls Interference Handover reason (due to UL_QUAL, Powerbudget, distance)
Less labor intensive and time consuming More comprehensive, based on large number of users not limited to time of test drive Uplink and Downlink analysis possible Subscriber behavior mix of outdoor, indoor, incar use

Advantages over test drives:


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Collect / Analyse OMC Statistics


Disadvantages, limitations:

Limited geographical resolution (Where does the problem occur?) Cannot separate problems due to coverage from other

Call attempts in uncovered areas are not counted Call drop due to lack of coverage

Network must have minimum load for reliable statistics

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Collect / Analyse Drive Test Measurements


Test types Continuos drive test (Trace mode) Spot test Network performance test (Statistical mode)
Test Measurement Collect MS measurement report data (Downlink only!!)

Serving signal level BER (Rxqual) Channel Number CI and LAI

Timing Advance Layer 3 messages BSICs Signal and power levels of neighbouring cells

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Implement Changes
Changes related to database parameters
Actions related to site hardware Problems to be solved by Normal Roll-out activities Problems to be solved by other system experts

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Test Mobile
Various modes, e.g. Repeated call setups Continuous call Scanning mode

check for spectrum

occupancy

check for BCCH with no neighbour relations

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Repeated Call Setups


UmInterface AbisInterface A-Interface

Base Transceiver Station

Base Station Controller

Mobile Switching Center

PSTNInterface

Method

Serial Interface

Measuremt Software

call setup hold for predefined time period and then release

predefined time = mean holding time call may be dropped earlier

repeat call setup after predefined waiting time (typical 15 s) simulate subscriber behavior wide area quality assessment and trend identification
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Purpose

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Repeated Call Setups


Typical parameters

call setup success rate, setup time, dropped call rate statistics can be generated in Tornado / Planet, e.g.
Call Diagnostics RxQual Full Threshold: RxQual Full Threshold (%): 90 RxLev Full Threshold: RxLev Full Threshold (%): 90 Maximum Setup Time (s): Call 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time 21:38.8 23:53.1 26:08.7 28:23.9 30:38.8 32:54.4 Setup 6.5 FAIL 5.7 6.4 5.8 12 4 14 10

Clear Down RxQual (%) RxLev (%) Category OK 100 100 GOOD FAIL FAIL FAIL NO SETUP OK 98 85.3 LOW SIGNAL OK 79.5 100 NOISY FAIL FAIL FAIL DROPPED OK 100 100 DELAYED

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Continuous Call
Method

call setup hold continuously until drive test route complete

in case of call drops re-establish

Purpose

Wide area quality trace Locating individual problem areas Detailed analysis in problem areas Quality assessment on rural highways etc. BS Testing and Functional Testing

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Continuous Call
Typical parameters RxLev, RxQual, BCCH, BSIC, handover, Layer 3 messages etc.
Import into planning tool Terrain or clutter background Comparison of measured network performance vs. prediction Statistics: RxLev, RxQual, handover success rate

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Statistics
Combine from both modes
Measurement RxLev > -85 dBm RxQual < 4 Handover success rate Call setup success rate Mean setup time Dropped call rate Test sample unit Measurement bin (Tornado) Measurement bin (Tornado) Handover attempt Call attempt Call successfully setup Call successfully setup No. of samples Measured value 8,432 8,432 61 115 106 106 99.90% 99.20% 93.50% 90.30% 5.3 s 1.00%

Typical measurements also used for acceptance tests

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Performance Measurements
Provide an overview of network performance (statistics)

uplink analysis also possible validity depends on sufficient samples


blocking rate
BTS ID LAC 6 2 5 22 1 4 4 4 4 4 CI 4052 4083 4051 4183 4082 CI 4052 4052 4171 4041 BSIC 2 2 2 2 2 BSIC 2 2 2 2 4 4 6 7 4 2 6 0 1 f1 83 76 79 77 84 f1 f2 69 67 66 80 f2 f3 f4 f3 f4 Busy hour 16:00:00 16:00:00 16:00:00 12:00:00 13:00:00 TCH Blocking Rate 66.53% 30.16% 7.91% 3.96% 3.81%

Examples:

BTS ID LAC 25 6 26 3
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Busy hour SDCCH Blocking Rate 15:00:00 16:00:00 13:00:00 13:00:00 32.99% 5.99% 2.83% 2.06%

4 4 4 4

83 69 83 69 63 87
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Performance Measurements

Call setup success rate


BTS ID 25 29 15 5 26 11 LAC 4 4 4 4 4 4 CI 4152 4131 4032 4051 4171 4071 Busy Hour 15:00:00 15:00:00 18:00:00 16:00:00 13:00:00 12:00:00 Call Set-up Success Rate 28.4% 68.0% 81.3% 92.1% 94.1% 94.7%

Dropped call rate


BTS ID LAC 37 15 22 25 7 26 29 27 19 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 CI 4192 4032 4183 4152 4011 4171 4131 4172 4212 TCH RF Loss Inter Cell HO Connections Loss 19730 12740 10993 24748 8849 15922 5712 10421 9192 1526 723 485 755 240 219 77 156 130 23 6 18 12 16 28 8 4 9 Intra Cell HO Loss 153 58 13 29 23 12 6 4 5 Call Drop Rate 9% 6% 5% 3% 3% 2% 2% 2% 2%

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Concept for Optimisation


Alternatives Status of the Network Decide further Analysis Program Analyzing Programs Coverage Dropped Calls

Network Snapshot

Call Setup Success Handover Perf.

Speech Quality Quick Check


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General Check

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Analysis Programs
Coverage: Analysis for Fulfilment of Coverage Requirements (Urban, rural ... areas, outdoor, in-car, indoor) Analysis for Dropped Calls due to Interference, SW/HW failures, Transmission Network Failures

Dropped Call:

Call Setup:

Analysis for Blocking and Capacity Limitations, Analysis for Resource Allocation Procedures
Analysis for Efficient Handover Performance Analysis for Interference

Handover: Speech Quality:

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Problem Symptoms
No service
High call drop rate No coverage RF Network No System Availability No coverage Network Element Failures Interference Transmission Network Failures Handover failure Fixed Network BSS, SSS Network Element Failure Low call setup success rate Transmission Failures RF Network Other networks No coverage Mobile terminal Interference Blocking Poor speech quality Fixed Network BSS, SSS RF Network Blocking No coverage Overload Interference Other Poor handover performance Fixed Network BSS, SSS Network element failure Transmission network failure Other networks Mobile Phone
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Coverage Analysis
Test mobile measurements

Antenna configuration check


Verification of RF network design DTM check Propagation model verification Link budget analysis

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Test Mobile Measurements


Collect RxLev measurements together with GPS co-ordinates

Analyse on planning tool


Reasons for poor coverage:

serving cell not best server

handover problems check site / network design

best server signal low

Analyse in terms of relevant

thresholds:

indoor level in-car level outdoor level


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Test Mobile Measurements


Consequences of poor RxLev: low RxQual vulnerable to interference Limitation with drive tests: downlink only Another method: statistical analysis OMC or drive tests
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Possible Problem Areas


Downlink Output power low Obstruction of Tx antenna Antennae not aligned properly Broken / wrongly connected cables Database parameters controlling output power Uplink Receive sensitivity degraded due to hardware problems Obstruction of Rx antennae Antennae not aligned properly Broken / wrongly connected cables Lack of diversity gain

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Antenna Configuration
General points to check

antenna type, e.g.


omni directional 60, 90 or 120 degrees electrical downtilt cross-polarised coverage targets

antenna azimuth angle (for directional antennae)

antenna tilt angle

electrical + mechanical
e.g. space diversity, polarisation diversity
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diversity & isolation


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Antenna Types - Typical Beam Patterns


Directional antenna

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Antenna Types - Typical Beam Patterns


Omni antenna with electrical downtilt

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Antenna Fine Tuning


Horizontal Plane:

Possible coverage weakness between sectors Interference reduction Traffic load distribution Interference reduction Possible coverage weakness in the short to medium distance range Traffic load distribution

Vertical Plane:

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Omni vs. Sectorised


OMNI cells - more difficult to optimise

Electrical downtilt possible, however

same for entire cell

Parameters same for entire cell narrower beam easier to control interference tilting less efficient with wider beams Sectorised cell site with different downtilt angles

Directional antennae

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Vertical Antenna Beam


High gain antennae with sharp vertical lobe

shadow under antenna


0

Ant. Effective height

In practice: For cluttered environments reflections often compensate

60 m

City

400 m

Solution:
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Add mechanical downtilt

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Tilting
Antenna downtilt often used to minimise interference

Minimum: Vertical mail lobe pointing at cell edge

hBS

Maximum: First null angle pointing at cell edge

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Tilting
Electrical vs. Mechanical downtilt
0 Electrical

0 Mechanical

Advantages:

Better back lobe characteristics Better lower side lobe characteristics

Disadvantages:

A combination of mechanical / electrical downtilt may be used

Antennas are more expensive

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Tilting
No Tilt Down Tilted 4 degrees

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Antenna Diversity Type


Space diversity
Rx ant. 1 Rx ant. 2

Dual polarisation
Rx ant.

Typical > 10l

Horisontal / vertical

Cross polarised

vertical polarisation in general good performance requires extra antenna for diversity

mobile antenna normally not held vertically when signals are reflected polarisation change (vertical normally dominates) cross polarised preferred

good performance in urban areas easier installation

save one antenna

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Verification of RF Network Design


Site check

Site physical configuration evaluation


Site-to-site distances and distribution Special features for improving coverage Site database configuration evaluation

Tx power power control settings etc.

BTS

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Site Check
Verify that site is implemented according to plan

Check installation e.g.


antenna spacing (diversity, isolation) antennae in one sector are installed in the same plane antennae alignment omni antenna installation cable installation
Horisontal spacing
Rx Rx Tx

Omni
k1 k2

Tx

k2

Rx

Rxd

Vertical spacing

Antennas mounted in different planes

Alignment of antennas

k
Tx

a= max 15
a
a

Rx d

Tx d

Rxd d

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Antenna Isolation
Isolation by vertical or horizontal separation between two antennas K73316..
60 50 40 30 20 10 0
1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250 500 750

A
Horizontal Vertical

Isolation /dB

Horizontal
A

Spacing A/ mm
Source: Kathrein

Vertical
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Antenna Isolation
Isolation by vertical or horizontal separation between two antennas K73416..
Isolation /dB

60 40 20 0
1000 1150 1250 400 500 650 750 900

A
Horizontal Vertical

Horizontal
A

Spacing A/mm
Source: Kathrein

Vertical
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Site Physical Configuration


Antenna height

ideally sites within a given area classification should have similar heights if traffic distribution is uniform evaluate site height in terms of objective

macrocell / minicell / microcell limitation of interference clear obstructions

Antenna tilt / directions


avoid coverage gaps target priority areas limit interference sectorise omni cells?
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Appropriate antenna types

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Site-to-Site Distances and Distribution


For an area of uniform structure / terrain / traffic

site-to-site distance should be uniform (assuming uniform site design)


coverage characteristics / requirements capacity requirements Downtown: High site density Suburban area: less dense Roads: Sites located along a line

Site distribution should reflect


Typical case

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Special Features for Improving Coverage


Microcell for indoor coverage outdoor coverage in high capacity areas Repeaters alternative to microcell where the traffic needs are low indoor outdoor road coverage coverage hole fill solution Other indoor coverage solutions distributed anteanne fibre optic repeater leaky cable HCS, e.g. large cells for car-coverage small cells for pedestrians
Micro - Cell Site -Location Macro - Cell Site -Location

Building Outlines

Building Outlines

Scale = 0.5 Km

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Cell splitting, Sectorisation


Change from large cells to small cells
Difficult , Expensive Mainly driven by capacity requirements Result: Improved indoor coverage

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DTM Check
DTM resolution

horisontal

macrocell (typical 50-100 m for roads, 50 m for small cities, 20 - 40 m for large cities) microcell (very high resolution, down to building level)

vertical - should be high

Source data

heights and clutter derived from paper maps clutter and / or vector updates by satellite photographs / aerial photos for metropolitan areas

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Propagation Model Verification


Wrong model wrong coverage prediction

In general, standard models have high performance


Highly specialised model may only be valid for a small area Model performance depends on accuracy of DTM To tune the model

field strength measurements check existing model against measurements modify model parameters

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Link Budget Analysis


Check for link budget imbalance
downlink

uplink

Coverage Problem - Unbalanced Up- and Downlink


Uplink Power Budget - Downlink Power Budget = 0! Link Power Budget is balanced!
d o w n lin k
P A o u tp u t p o w e r c o m b in e r lo s s c a b le lo s s d o w n lin k R x S e n sitiv ity M S
BTS

nc a la

ed

Bu er ow

dg

et

R x S e n sitiv ity B S

c a b le lo s s u p lin k

a n te n n a d iv e rs ity g a in

u p lin k
M S Peak Pow er

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Link Budget Analysis


Coverage Problem - Unbalanced Up- and Downlink
Uplink Power Budget - Downlink Power Budget 0! Link Power Budget is unbalanced!
RxLev/dBm -55,00

Caused by wrong assumption for


35% Coverage Loss @ 3dB!
-65,00 RxLev for Indoor Coverage(90%) Links balanced -75,00 3dB unbalanced

55% Coverage Loss @ 6 dB! 6dB unbalanced


-85,00 0,20 0,40 0,60 Distance from BTS in km 0,80

Receiver Sensitivity Diversity Gain Propagation Environment Link Balancing via Optimization of Diversity Tower mounted amplifier High power amplifier

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Link Budget Analysis


Increasing BS Output?

Unbalanced link budget Must be matched by higher BS TX power for balanced link budget -110 dBm
Uplink -107 dBm Downlink

Better BS Rx sensitivity or pre-amplifier

40 dBm

37 dBm
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Dropped Call Analysis


How to measure

drive tests

repeated call setups (preferred) continuous calls

OMC measurements lack of coverage interference problems handover problems lack of synchronisation in network problems with other parts of the network

Reasons for dropped calls


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Call Setup Analysis


How to measure

drive tests

repeated call setups

OMC measurements

Reasons for failed call setups

lack of coverage database problems


database inconsistencies parameter settings, e.g.


RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN, RACHBT, RACH_MAX_RETRANS cell reselection related parameters

network congestion
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MAXRETR
Slotted ALOHA mechanism: Several users may attempt to

access channel simultaneously


in case of collision new attempts are made MAXRETR: Maximum no. of retries allowed

BTS

MS

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E.g: MAXRETR = 2
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Handover Performance Analysis


When moving from one cell to another (neighbour cells) handovers are

necessary
Too many neighbours
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Inaccurate handover decision

Handover Failure & Dropped Call

EqualPowerBoundary Mutual Neighbour Non-Mutual Neighbour Missing Neighbour Too many Neighbours

Missing Neighbour definition

Handover Failure

Dropped Call

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Handover Parameters
Objectives:

mobile should be connected to the bestcell avoid unnecessary handovers good speech quality less dropped calls

Consequence

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Consequence of Missing Neighbours


Defined neighbours Server Missing neighbour Interferer

f1

f1
Cell dragging

Missing neighbour cells

Congestion

Cell dragging

Poor RxQual

Poor RxLev

Interference

Exceeded distance

Poor PBGT

Dropped Calls

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Consequence of Many Neighbour Definitions


Only about 100 measurement samples are possible during one

measurement period for all defined neighbour cells


Number of BCCH carriers In BCCH Allocation 32 16 10 8 : Number of samples per Carrier in SACCH multiframe 3-4 6-7 10-11 12-13 :
(Rec. GSM 0508)

Too many neighbour cells Inaccurate signal level measurement False handover decisions Dropped Calls
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Problem: Sites with too large coverage area

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Handover Measurements
Handover due to a better

cell
(RxLev_1 > RxLev_Full)

Handover due to bad

quality
Can also be analysed by statistics
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Handover Parameters
Fine-tuning of handover parameters

Moving cell boundaries in order to


Enhance success rate for critical handovers Minimise local interference at the cell edge Traffic load sharing between cells

Compared to other opimisation measures improvement potential is limited Affected by


Measurement averaging Power control parameters

PS! Neighbours should in general be mutual

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Radio Link Measurements


BTS measurements (Uplink):

Signal level Quality BS-MS distance (Interference levels in idle time slots)

BSC

UL DL Neighbour

MS

BTS

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Radio Link Measurements


MS measurements (Downlink)

Signal Level Quality Signal levels of neighbouring cells (BCCH)

BSC

Strongest 6 are reported to the Network

UL DL

Neighbour
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MS
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BTS

Radio Link Measurements


BSC (In general)

Collects all data


BTS and MS send measurement reports every 480 ms Makes handover decisions

BSC

Siemens Network, BTS makes HO decisions

UL DL Neighbour
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MS
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BTS

Radio Link Measurements


Radio link measurements averaging

BTS (BSC) receives measurement samples from BTS + MS

every SACCH-Multiframe (480ms,104 TDMA frames) averaging Window size (max.31) Window is cleared after call setup or handover

Gliding Window

32 27 23 29 29 21 19 22 23 21 Average value = 24

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Radio Link Measurements


F F S S F F F S S F
Measurement Values each SACCH Multiframe (0.48s)

32 27 23 29 29 21 19 22 23 21

32 32 27 27 23 29 29 29 21 21 Average value = 27
W_Lev_Full = 2 W_Lev_SUB = 1 Gliding Window = 5

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Handover Algorithm
Handover Decision

IRQUAL no LEV no DIST no

yes

Inter-cell HO due to Quality

yes PBGT no yes IAQUAL no

Inter-cell HO Power Budget

yes

Inter-cell HO due to Level

Intra-cell HO due to Quality

yes

Inter-cell HO due to Distance

No handover action

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Handover Criteria
Handover Region (due to quality and level)
Rx_Qual 7
Intercell HO due to quality Intracell HO due to Quality

L_Rx_Lev_XX_IH

L_Rx_Qual_XX_H
Intercell HO due to level

No handover action due to quality or level

0
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L_Rx_Lev_XX_H
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Rx_Lev

Handover Decision
Handover Types Intercell HO due to Quality Decision Criteria 1. RXQUAL_XX > L_RXQUAL_XX_H 2. RXLEV_XX < L_RXLEV_XX_IH 3. XX_TXPWR = Min (XX_TXPWR_Max,P) HO due to Level 1. RXLEV_XX > L_RXLEV_XX_H 2. XX_TXPWR = Min(XX_TXPWR_Max,P) HO due to Distance 1. MS_BS_DIST > MS_Range_Max HO due to 1. RXLEV_NCELL(n) > RXLEV_MIN(n) Power Budget + Max (0,MS_TXPWR_MAX(n)-P) 2. PBGT(n) > HO_MARGIN(n) Intracell HO 1. RXQUAL_XX > L_RXQUAL_XX_H due to Quality 2. RXLEV_XX > L_RXLEV_XX_IH

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Intracell Handover
Stay within cell, change frequency / time slot situation

in general interference different on different timeslots change to a different cell may be unnecessary
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Interferer: f1 Sever: f1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

higher traffic load higher likelihood on other timeslots not effective with frequency hopping

parameter settings for intracell handover should be set to reduce such handovers
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Intracell Handover
Check for simultaneous occurrence of:

Poor quality (high Rx_Qual) Sufficient signal level

L_Rx_Lev_XX_IH
Rx_Qual

L_Rx_Lev_XX_IH
Intracell HO due to Quality

L_Rx_Qual_XX_H

L_Rx_Lev_XX_H

Rx_Lev

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Level Handovers
Adjacent cell not stronger than current cell + HO margin

Serving cell has insufficient coverage

emergency handover to cell with better coverage Rx_Lev

Server

HOMARGIN

HO_Threshold_Lev

neighbour
MinHOReqInt

Driven route

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Level Handovers
Receiver limit sensitivity L_RXLEV_XX_H (outgoing level HO) L_RXLEV_XX_IH (inter HO / intracell quality HO) RXLEV_MIN (incoming HO)

BTS
RXLEV_MIN threshold for cell to accept incoming handover L_RXLEV_XX_H threshold for initiating outgoing handover due to signal level relation with RXLEV_MIN will determine hysteresis L_RXLEV_XX_IH threshold for initiating inter / intracell quality HO
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Distance Handover
Maximum allowable BS-MS distance

Default: MS_Range_Max=61 (bits Timing Advance,TA)

Maximum value: 63, corresponding to 35 km

Enhanced by Extended Cell

Normally used in combination with other criteria, e.g.


cross-water propagation, elevated bridges etc.

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Power Budget Handover


Select cell with better signal level at given location

HO margin

Large enough to avoid ping-pong HO small enough to allow fast HO

BTS1

BTS2

Ping-Pong HO

1. RXLEV_NCELL(n) > RXLEV_MIN(n) + Max(0,MS_TXPWR_MAX(n)-P) 2. PBGT(n) = RXLEV_NCELL(n)-(RXLEV_DL+PWR_C_D) +Min(MS_TWPWR_MAX(n),P)-Min(MS_TXPWR_MAX(n),P) > HO_MARGIN(n)


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Cell Reselection
C1-criterion for cell access:
C1 = AV_RXLEV - RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN - MAX(0,MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH-P) > 0

MS takes 5 samples of the received level on each RF carrier which

are averaged AV_RXLEV = 1/5 * (RXLEV1+RXLEV2++RXLEV5)

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Cell Reselection
For example:
DL

BTS MS
MS class 5 (GSM900) AV_RXLEV=-97 dBm

RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN = -100 dBm MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH = 29 dBm (0.8W)


C1 = -97 - (-100) - Max(0,33-29) = -1

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Cell Reselection
For example:
DL
Operator A BTS

MS class 5 (GSM900)

DL
Operator B BTS
RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN = -100 dBm MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH = 33 dBm (2W)

MS

RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN = -110 dBm MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH = 33 dBm (2W)

MS receives signal from Operator A and B = -90 dBm Operator A Operator B C1 = -90 - (-110) - Max(0,33-29) = +16 C1 = -90 - (-100) - Max(0,33-29) = +6

3
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Cell Reselection
C1 criteria

Same Location Area

C1 (neighbour cell) > C1 (serving cell) C1 (neighbour cell) > C1 (serving cell) + Cell_Reselect_Hysteresis High power class MS Low power class MS Cell_Reselect_Hysteresis

Different Location Area

C1

BTS1

BTS2

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Speech Quality Analysis


Parameters RxQual Frame Erasure Rate (FER) Speech Quality Index (SQI) Measurements Drive test

Causes of interference co-channel interference adjacent channel interference intermodulation

mainly on one link only

multipath interference

preferably continuous call


Interfering cell of base station within GSM network

OMC statistics

Cause for poor quality low signal strength (coverage related interference low signal strength and interference
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Base station within GSM Network

SIEMENS Limited 1999

Downlink Interference Measurement


Typical requirement

speech: RxQual 4 data: RxQual 3


BER % 0.0 - 0.2 0.2 - 0.4 0.4 - 0.8 0.8 - 1.6 1.6 - 3.2 3.2 - 6.4 6.4 - 12.8 > 12.8 RxQual 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

With frequency hopping: RxQual not a valid parameter


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Frequency Changes
Sometimes necessary to minimise interference

As network reaches capacity limit this becomes difficult

Other frequencies may be affected by the change Choice: Whichever happens to be easier to change

Can be done at either interfering cell or victim cell

Existing plan may be entered into planning tool as

constraints

search for optimum frequency allocation for a given cell

At a certain point the whole network e.g. in a city may have to

be re-planned

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SIEMENS Limited 1999

Frequency Changes
BCCH/TCH swapping

Method sometimes used: Alternate between clusters

BCCH: 794

BCCH: 794 TCH:797

BCCH: 794

BCCH: 797 TCH:794

before Effectiveness depends on TCH traffic load BCCH / TCH sub-bands are mixed Could be used as a temporary measure

after

while traffic load is low

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SIEMENS Limited 1999

BSIC Optimisation
Base Station Identity Codes

Used by the MS to distinguish between cells using the same frequency

Co-Channel cells must have different BSICs

f9 f9

f9

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Call Setup/Handover Mechanisms


20-25 dB street corner loss: Fast handovers required

Micro-micro Micro-macro

Fast measurement averaging Carefully tuned handover thresholds Small handover margins Short penalty timers
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Location Area Codes


Purpose

identify location area in incoming call is paged to all BTSs within LA


advantage: less location updates (reduced SDCCH load) disadvantage: more paging traffic

Large location area


Boundaries should not cross high traffic areas Cell reselection across LA boundaries

Parameter Cell_Reselect_Hysteresis (typ. 4 dB) used to avoid unnecessary signalling due to ping-pong cell reselections

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SIEMENS Limited 1999

Interference Reduction
Power Control
Frequency Hopping Discontinuous Transmission DTX

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Power Control
Quality-triggered PC

e.g. L_RXQUAL_XX_P = 4

Triggers a power increase at poor quality Triggers a power reduction at good quality Virtually disabled by setting to highest RXQUAL value Level criterion is more suitable for power reduction

e.g. U_RXQUAL_XX_P = 1

Level-triggered PC

e.g. L_RXLEV_XX_P = 25 (-85 dBm)

Triggers a power increase at bad level Triggers a power reduction at good level
SIEMENS Limited 1999

e.g. U_RXQUAL_XX_P = 35 (-75 dBm)

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Power Control
RXQUAL

Power Increase (bad quality) L_RXQUAL_XX_P Power Increase (bad level) Power Decrease (Good Level)

L_RXQUAL_XX_P
Power Decrease (good quality)

RXLEV
L_RXLEV_XX_P U_RXLEV_XX_P 2*POW_RED_STEP_SIZE
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SIEMENS Limited 1999

Frequency Hopping
Cyclic / Pseudo Random hopping
Baseband / Synthesized hopping
0 BCCH
0 1 5

SDCCH Call 1 Call 2

f1 f2 f3

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TDMA frame (8 time slots)

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SIEMENS Limited 1999

Frequency Hopping
Cyclic / Pseudo Random hopping
Baseband / Synthesized hopping
0 BCCH
0

SDCCH Call 1 Call 2

f1 f2 f3

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TDMA frame (8 time slots)

ICN PLM CA NP

SIEMENS Limited 1999

Frequency Hopping
Cyclic / Pseudo Random hopping
Baseband / Synthesized hopping
0 BCCH
0 1 5

SDCCH Call 1 Call 2

f1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

f2,f3,f4,f5,f6,f7 f2,f3,f4,f5,f6,f7

f6 f3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
f7

f4

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TDMA frame (8 time slots)


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SIEMENS Limited 1999

DTX
Goal: Reduce speech data rate from 13 kbps (user speaking) to

500 bps (enough to encode background noise)


reduce MS power consumption reduce the interference in a cell DTXUL -> 0 : MS may use DTX (If possible) 1 : MS shall use DTX 2 : MS shall not use DTX FALSE : downlink DTX disabled at BTS TRUE : downlink DTX enabled at BTS

SBS parameter for DTX / VAS administration

DTXDL ->

PS! No gain for data communications


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Channel Configuration
Channel Type TCHFULL MAINBCCH MBCCHC SDCCH TCHF&HLF* BCBCH* SCBCH* CCCH*

Channel Combination TCH/F + FACCH/F + SACCH/F FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH (AGCH+PCH+RACH) FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH + 4 (SDCCH+SACCH) 8 (SDCCH + SACCH) TCH/H(0) + FACCH/H (0) + SACCH/H(0) + TCH/H(1) FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH + 3 (SDCCH+SACCH) + CBCH 7 (SDCCH + SACCH) + CBCH BCCH + CCCH

For example,

Note: * in SBS BR 3.0

1TRX : TS0 -> BCBCH TS1-7 -> TCHFULL 2 TRXs : TRX0, TS0 -> MAINBCCH TRX0, TS1 -> SCBCH TRX0, TS2-7 -> TCHFULL TRX1, TS0-7 -> TCHFULL
ICN PLM CA NP

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Capacity Enhancements
Easy approach: Add TRXs

Problem: No more frequencies:

Options

Traffic load distribution Interference optimisation features: FH, PC, DTX Sectorisation: Increasing cell density Cell splitting: Increasing site density HCS
Dual band operation (e.g. GSM900/DCS1800) Dual mode operation (e.g. GSM900/DECT) Underlay / Overlay Overlaid micro- and picocells


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Half rate coding Migration to 3rd Generation Systems


SIEMENS Limited 1999

Adding TRX
Congested cells found by OMC measurements
Sec TRX GOS 2% Week1 Week2 Week3 Week4 Week5 Week6 Week7 BTS1 1 3 14.9 10.53 9.66 10.21 9.88 10.54 9.97 10.37 BTS2 2 2 8.2 7.43 7.26 7.59 6.98 7.55 8.02 8.33 BTS3 3 3 14.9 11.92 11.4 12.12 11.82 11.75 12.02 12.15

Sector 2 will experience congestion Sometimes percentage limit, e.g. 80%, of full load defined

Sector 3 is near that limit

Possible limitations of TRX extensions:

Need for changed hardware configuration costly

e.g. new BTS rack needed

Frequency Spectrum limited


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Interference Reduction Features


Frequency Hopping (FH) Dynamic Power Control (PC) Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)

allow tighter frequency re-us


(already considered for 40-60 Erl./km2 in macrocell layer with 5 to 10 MHz)

3No additional sites or frequencies required 3Available, stable 3Implementation causes no disturbance of
network operation

7Little or no effect if available spectrum is very


limited (BCCH limitations)
ICN PLM CA NP

SIEMENS Limited 1999

Traffic Load Distribution


Traffic in a cell related to cell coverage area
If sufficient overlap between cells:

reduce traffic by changing cell boundary

antenna downtilt reduce power (PWRRED) alter handover boundaries

Usually a temporary solution only

Default HO boundaries Changed HO boundaries

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Call Setup/handover mechanisms


Relieve macrocells from traffic

Umbrella type handover into microcells Directed retry

Allows call setup In second-best server, shares traffic resources between layers

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SIEMENS Limited 1999

Hierarchical Cell Structures


Underlay/Overlay

Umbrella cells: Dominant site with large coverage area

low traffic - fast mobiles normal traffic cover small high traffic areas
P I C C E L Ls

Macrocells: Antenna above average rooftop level

Microcell: Antenna below average rooftop level

Picocell: Antenna

Indoor coverage Outdoor Installatio n

Hotspot

usually indoors

Parking lot

coverage to building or parts thereof - e.g. Business users

Contiguous M icrocellular Coverage

Subway Coverage Extension

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SIEMENS Limited 1999

Concentric cells
C/I = 17 dB C/I = 0 dB C/I = 17 dB

f3

f1

f2

f3

Inner cell can use 1 x 3 reuse pattern


Special handover mechanisms between layers Limited gains for uniform traffic distribution

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SIEMENS Limited 1999

Overlaid Micro- and Picocells


The smallest cells should absorb most of the traffic in their

coverage area Larger cells for fast moving mobiles / areas not covered by small cells

Macrocells

Microcells
Picocells
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SIEMENS Limited 1999

Microcell Frequency Planning


Different resolutions required for different layers

flexibility of planning tool needed


Reduce complexity of frequency optimisation task Guard band may be needed to avoid adjacent channel interference reduce macrocell traffic determine mobile speed Fast handovers

Dedicated frequency bands for different layers


Call Setup/handover strategy


Serving BTS

Loss around street corner: 20 dB!


Micro BTS

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SIEMENS Limited 1999

Speed Sensitive Handovers


Mechanisms to separate fast from slow mobiles

mobile class

today mostly same class is used (e.g. GSM900 class 4)

measurement of the timing advance delta

only works for direction away from site


try to keep handovers within same layer unless speed change

cell type

mean time between handovers

ICN PLM CA NP

SIEMENS Limited 1999

Half Rate Coding / Dual Rate Operation


Has potential to double network capacity

Advantages:

No additional sites / frequencies required Minimum investment for infrastructure upgrade Speech quality degradation (reduction of speech bit rate from 13 kb/s to 6.5 kb/s)
Especially mobile-to-mobile calls

Disadvantage:

Gain depends on ratio full rate users / half rate users / data traffic

ICN PLM CA NP

SIEMENS Limited 1999

Cell Parameter Optimisation


Default parameter sets:

PS! Standard setting suitable for most cases Starting point for possible optimisation, however

more relevant after other optimisation activities

Different parameter standards may be used for

different area types BTS types etc.

Danger

many parameters easy to lose overview


inconsistencies deterioration of quality

ICN PLM CA NP

SIEMENS Limited 1999

Possible Network Optimisation Measures


Effect

Overlaid microcells Dual band Underlay/ Overlay HR Sectorisation Frequency Changes Fine tuning of antenna orientation and tilt Adding TRX Repeaters Preamps Cell spiltting Dual mode

FH, PC, DTX

Cell parameter setting

Cost, Effort

ICN PLM CA NP

SIEMENS Limited 1999

Increasing Network Capacity


The relationship between quality and capacity

In a congested network, quality can deteriorate very quickly:


Congestion
Extended call setup times Interference/ Noise Unavailability of service Dropped call Poor speech quality

Violation of all 4 basic quality criteria


ICN PLM CA NP

SIEMENS Limited 1999