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Transport in Plants

AP Biology

2006-2007

Review: Transport proteins


Facilitate diffusion via carrier or selective
channel formation Carrier proteins

Selective to solute molecule Produces conformational change of protein Releases molecule to opposite side Passageways for certain solutes May be gated - open/close

Selective channel

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Transport in plants
H2O & minerals

transport in xylem transpiration


evaporation, adhesion & cohesion negative pressure

Sugars

transport in phloem bulk flow


Calvin cycle in leaves loads sucrose into phloem positive pressure

Gas exchange

Why does over-watering kill a plant?

photosynthesis
CO2 in; O2 out stomates

respiration
O2 in; CO2 out roots exchange gases within air spaces in soil

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Ascent of xylem fluid


Transpiration pull generated by leaf

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Water & mineral absorption Water absorption from soil


osmosis aquaporins

Mineral absorption
active transport proton pumps

active transport of

H+

aquaporin root hair

AP Biology proton pumps

H2O

Mineral absorption Proton pumps

active transport of H+ ions out of cell


chemiosmosis H+ gradient

creates membrane potential


difference in charge drives cation uptake

creates gradient
cotransport of other

solutes against their gradient


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Water flow through root

Porous cell wall


water can flow through cell wall route & not enter cells plant needs to force water into cells

Casparian strip

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Controlling the route of water in root

Endodermis

cell layer surrounding vascular cylinder of root lined with impermeable Casparian strip forces fluid through selective cell membrane
filtered & forced into xylem cells

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Mycorrhizae increase absorption Symbiotic relationship between fungi & plant


symbiotic fungi greatly increases surface area for absorption of water & minerals increases volume of soil reached by plant increases transport to host plant

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Mycorrhizae

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Control of Stomates
Guard cell

Epidermal cell Nucleus


K+ H2O

Chloroplasts

Uptake of K+ ions
by guard cells

proton pumps water enters by osmosis guard cells become turgid

H2O K+

H2O K+

K+ H2O

H2O K+

H2O K+

K+ H2O

K+ H2O

Loss of K+ ions
by guard cells

Thickened inner cell wall (rigid)

water leaves by osmosis H2O K+ guard cells become flaccid

H2O K+ Stoma open water moves into guard cells

H2O K+ Stoma closed water moves out of guard cells

H2O K+

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Water potential and osmosis


Osmosis
Net absorption or loss of water Water potential () Combined effects of solute concentration and pressure Determines direction of water movement Water moves from areas of high water potential to areas of low water potential 0 Mpa = pure water open at sea level & AP Biology room temp

Water potential ()
Solute potential (s)

Pressure Potential (P)


Proportional to number of dissolved solutes Osmotic potential s = 0 in pure water s = -0.23 in 0.1M solution of sugar Addition of solutes lowers the Physical pressure on a solution Can be + or Water in xylem is often negative Water in cell is often positive

Additional pressure raises the

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= p + s
p - pressure potential s - solute potential =
osmotic potential Flaccid cell (P = 0) placed in hypertonic solution will lose water via osmosis Plasmolysis protoplast pulls away from cell walls Same cell placed within a hypotonic solution will gain water via osmosis = turgid
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Transport of sugars in phloem


Loading of sucrose into phloem
flow through cells via plasmodesmata proton pumps

cotransport of sucrose into cells down

proton gradient

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Pressure flow in phloem


Mass flow hypothesis

source to sink flow


direction of transport in phloem is

dependent on plants needs

phloem loading
active transport of sucrose

can flow 1m/hr

into phloem increased sucrose concentration decreases H2O potential

water flows in from xylem cells


increase in pressure due to

increase in H2O causes flow

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Experimentation Testing pressure flow


hypothesis

using aphids to measure sap flow & sugar concentration along plant stem

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