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Wireless Communications

Principles and Practice 2nd Edition T.S. Rappaport


Chapter 5: Mobile Radio Propagation: Small-Scale Fading and Multi-path as it applies to Modulation Techniques

Small Scale Fading


Three major small-scale fading effects in radio channels
1) Rapid changes in signal strength over a small travel distance or time interval 2) Random frequency modulation due to varying doppler shifts on multipath signals 3) Time dispersion (echoes) caused by multipath propagation delays

Factors Influencing Fading


1) Multipath propagation: objects in the way 2) Speed of the mobile: moving to/from BS 3) Speed of surrounding objects: coherence time of objects around the channel 4) Transmission bandwidth of the signal: coherence BW causing smearing or distortion

Look at Example 5.1


Doppler effect Equation 5.1 and 5.2

Doppler Shift Geometry

Channel issues

Impulse Response Model of a multipath Channel


Equations 5.3, 5.4 and 5.5 A multipath channel is assumed to be a bandlimited BP channel If the channel response is assumed time invariant, or wide-sense stationary, then it is simplified to 5.13, 5.14, and 5.15 eqns.

Complex Baseband model for RF systems

Time-varying impulse response

Lets look at example 5.3

Measured impulse responses

Channel Sounder: Pulse type

Spread Spectrum Channel Sounding


Equation 5.26 and 5.27 Using Direct RF Pulse System to detect delay Spread spectrum channel sounder the probing signal is WB, but it is possible to detect the transmitted signal using NB receiver preceded by a WB mixer. Processing Gain (PG) found in 5.28 eqn

Channel Sounder: PN Type

Channel Sounder: Swept Freq. type

Measured power delay profiles

Indoor Power Delay Profile

Typical RMS delay spreads

Examples
Lets look at examples 5.5 and 5.6

Two independent fading issues

Flat-fading (non-freq. Selective)

Frequency selective fading

Two independent fading issues

Rayleigh fading

Small-scale envelope distributions

Ricean and Rayleigh fading distributions

Small-scale fading mechanism

Doppler spectrum

Spectrum of Envelope of doppler faded signal

Simulating Doppler/Small-scale fading

Simulating Doppler fading

Simulating Doppler fading

Simulating multipath with Dopplerinduced Rayleigh fading

Simulating 2-ray multipath

SIRCIM Simulation of all indoor propagation Characteristics

SMRCIM Simulation of all outdoor propagation Characteristics

SIRCIM and SMRCIM


Available from Wireless Valley Communications, Inc. Source code in C is available www. Wirelessvalley.com

Angular Spread model

Spatial distribution of Multipath

Angular Spread key to fading

Spatial orientation of multipath impacts the depths of fading

Angular Distribution of power

Angular Spread predicts correlation distances

Angular Spread predicts correlation distances

Homework
Read through Chapter 5 for next Thursday