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Internet & Home networking

Prof. J. Won-Ki Hong Dept. of Computer Science & Engineering POSTECH

Internet & Home Networking


Data Communication Network Internet & World Wide Web Home Networking

Internet & Home Networking

Data Communication Network

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Brief History of Computer Networks

1960s How can we transmit bits across a communication medium efficiently and reliably? 1970s How can we transmit packets across a communication medium efficiently and reliably? 1980s How can we provide communication services across a series of interconnected networks?

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1990s How can we provide high-speed, broadband communication services to support high-performance computing and multimedia applications across the globe?
2000's What do you think will dominate in the next 10 years?

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A Communication Model

Input Information m

Input data g or signal g(t)

Transmitted signal s(t)

Received signal r(t)

Output data g or signal g(t)

Output Information m

Input Device


Transmission medium


Output Device

Source System

Destination System



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Common Communication Tasks

Data encoding: the process of transforming input data or signals into signals that can be transmitted Signal generation: generating appropriate electromagnetic signals to be transmitted over a transmission medium

Synchronization: timing of signals between the transmitter and receiver ; when a signal begins and when it ends; duration of each signal

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Error detection and correction: ensuring that transmission errors are detected and corrected
Flow control: ensuring that the source does not overwhelm the destination by sending data faster than the receiver can handle Multiplexing: a technique used to make more efficient use of a transmission facility. This technique is used at different levels of communication

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Addressing: indicating the identity of the intended destination

Routing: selecting appropriate paths for data being transmitted Message formatting: conforming to the appropriate format of the message to be exchanged Security: ensuring secure message transmission Systems management: configuring the system, monitoring its status, reacting to failures and overloads, and planning for future growth

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Communication Network
A communication network is a collection of devices connected by some communications media Example devices are:
mainframes, minicomputers, supercomputers workstations, personal computers printers, disk servers, robots X-terminals Gateways, switches, routers, bridges Cellular phone, Pager, TRS Refrigerator, Television, Video Tape Recorder


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Communications Media
twisted pairs coaxial cables line-of-sight transmission: lasers, infra-red, microwave, radio satellite links fiber optics Power line


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Network Structures
Point-to-Point Networks each communication line connects a pair of nodes a packet (or message) is transmitted from one node to another intermediate nodes, in general, receive and store entire packet and then forward to the next node also called store-and-forward or pack-switched some topologies: star, ring, tree


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Broadcast Networks have a single communication line shared by all computers on the network packets sent by a host are received by all computers some topologies: bus, satellite, radio


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Types of Communication Networks

Local Area Networks (LANs)
< a few km high data transmission rate (at least several Mbps) ownership usually by a single organization e. g., Ethernet, IBM Token Ring, Token Bus, FDDI, Fast Ethernet, ATM, Gigabit Ethernet


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POSTECH LAN (1998.6)


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POSTECH LAN (1999. 3)


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Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs)

up to 50 km fibre optics is a popular technology for MANs may be private or public may involve a number of organizations e.g., cable TV networks (CATV), ATM networks


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Wide Area Networks (WANs)

a few km to thousands of km point-to-point networks (also called long-haul networks) lower data transmission rate than LANs fiber optics is a popular technology for MANs ownership usually by more than a single organization e.g., ARPANET, MILNET (US military), CA*NET, NSFNET, KREONET, BoraNet, KORNET, INET, Internet


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Internet in Korea (1995.5)


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Internet in Korea (1999.6)


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Growth of Internet Users in Korea


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Growth of Internet Hosts in Korea


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Computer Communication Architecture

Computer Communication the exchange of information between computers for the purpose of cooperative action

Computer Network a collection of computers interconnected via a communication network


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Protocol agreement required between the communication entities and consists of three components:
Syntax: data format and signal levels Semantics: control information for coordination and error handling Timing: speed matching and sequencing

Communications Architecture a structured set of modules that implements the communication function


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ISO-OSI Reference Model

International Standards Organization (ISO) Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference model is a framework for connecting computers on a network

to reduce the complexity of networking software as a step towards international standardization of the various protocols


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The main principles applied to the OSI layered architecture are

each layer represents a layer of abstraction, each performs a set of well-defined functions, implementation of a layer should not affect adjacent layers, and inter-layer communication should be minimized


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OSI Stack Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical

OSI Stack Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical

OSI Stack Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical


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Functions of the OSI Layers 1. Physical layer responsible for the electromechanical interface to the communications media 2. Data link layer responsible for transmission, framing and error control over a single communications link. 3. Network layer responsible for data transfer across the network, independent of both the media comprising the underlying subnetworks and the topology of those subnetworks.


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4. Transport layer responsible for reliability and

multiplexing of data transfer across the network (over and above that provided by the network layer) to the level required by the application. 5. Session layer responsible for establishing,, and managing sessions between cooperating applications. 6. Presentation layer responsible for providing independence to the application process from differences in data representation (syntax). 7. Application layer ultimately responsible for managing the communications between applications.

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How Communication Takes Place Between the Layers communication takes place between peer entities.

a layer provides services to the layer above it.

services are available at SAPs (Service Access Points) analogous to telephone numbers and street addresses


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Relation Between Layers at an Interface


Layer N + 1 Interface Layer N





Layer N entities exchange N-PDUs in their layer N Protocol

SAP = Service Access Point IDU = Interface Data Unit SDU = Service Data Unit PDU = Protocol Data Unit ICI = Interface Control Information



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On the sending side:

a layer receives a PDU (Protocol Data Unit) from the layer above it, with some ICI (Interface Control Information) (such as address, data size, etc.). the layer ads some PCI (Protocol control Information) to the APDU and passes the enlarged PDU to the layer below along with more ICI. A layer may also fragment a PDU into several smaller pieces to be passed separately to the layer below (in this case, the peer entity at the receiving end will reassemble the fragments).


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At the receiving end:

a layer receives a PDU from the layer below. The layer strips off the PCI added by its peer, and passes the PDU to the layer above it. If the sending layer fragmented a PDU, its peer is responsible for reassembling it before passing it up.


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Other Communication Models

The Anarchistic Network Model have been used mostly in PCs The TCP/IP Model only 5 layers exist used mostly in Internet network applications


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The Anarchistic Network Model Application

The OSI Model Application Presentation

The TCP/IP Model


Operating System

Session Transport Network Data Link Physical

Network Data Link Physical

Controller Physical

the network


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Communication Service Types

Connection-oriented service
modeled after the telephone system must establish a connection before use, and terminates the connection when finished. FIFO guaranteed. the path from the sender to receiver is fixed. resources are pre-allocated at setup time


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Connectionless service
modeled after the postal system no connection required, but instead full addressing required in each message FIFO not guaranteed. the path is not fixed resources are dynamically allocated


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Standards Organizations

ITU-T (International Telecommunication Union Telecommunications Sector) - formerly CCITT (International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee), a committee within ITU, a United Nations agency, responsible for X.25, X.21, X.400, X.500, X.700, X.900, etc. ISO (International Standards Organization): ISO 8073 (connection-oriented transport protocol) ANSI (American National Standard Institute) IEEE (Inst. of Electrical and Electronics Engineers): IEEE 802


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IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force): TCP/IP, FTP, SNMP W3C (World-Wide Web Consortium): HTTP, HTML, XML ATMF (ATM Forum) - ATM related standards TMF (TeleManagement Forum) - formerly known as NMF, Network Management Forum


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Internet and World Wide Web


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History of the Internet

1969 - Researchers at four US campuses create the first hosts of the ARPANET 1971 - The ARPANET grows to 23 hosts connecting universities and research centers 1973 - The ARPANET goes international with connections to England and Norway 1982 - The term "Internet" is used for the first time and TCP/IP is created 1992 - Internet Society is chartered. World-Wide Web released by CERN.


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A network of networks Based on TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) A variety of services and tools


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Network of networks
a group of two or more networks that are :
interconnected physically capable of communicating and sharing data with each other able to act together as a single network virtually all of todays computers are connected via Internet


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Based on TCP/IP
TCP/IP enables the different types of machines on separate networks to communicate and exchange information. TCP/IP is
A suite of protocols Rules for sending and receiving data across networks Addressing Management and verification


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Variety of services or tools

The Internet offer access to data, graphics, sound, software, text, and people through a variety of services and tools for communication and data exchange
E-Mail Usenet FTP Gopher Telnet World Wide Web

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World Wide Web

A way to provide and access information resources on the Internet Using Web Browser & Web Server Based on HTML and HTTP Multimedia
Hypertext "links" can lead to other documents, sounds, images, databases (like library catalogs), e-mail addresses, etc.

There is no top, there is no bottom. Non-linear means you do not have to follow a hierarchical path to information resources.


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Web Browser
a piece of software that acts as an interface between the user and the Internet, specifically the World Wide Web The browser acts on behalf of the user. The browser:
contacts a web server and sends a request for information receives the information and then displays it on the user's computer

The browser can be graphical or text-based and can make the Internet easier to use and more intuitive The helper applications are automatically invoked by the browser when a user selects a link to a resource that requires them A Web browser can be used on most of computers

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Web Server
Also known as HTTP Server or HTTP Daemon The repository of web pages of which types are HTML and any application data with MIME type Listens for HTTP requests from the web browsers, serves those requests Designed to communicate with web browsers using HTTP protocol Typically runs on general purpose computer


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consists of standardized codes,or "tags", that are used to define the structure of information on a web page defines several aspects of a web page including heading levels, bold, italics, images, paragraph breaks and hypertext links to other resources. a sub-language of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) that defines and standardizes the structure of documents. standardized and portable: A document that has been prepared using HTML can be viewed using a variety of web browsers, such as Netscape and Lynx

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the set of rules, or protocol, that governs the transfer of hypertext between two or more computers. Based on Client/Server paradigm Convey variety of Internet resources: HTML documents, text files, graphics, animation and sound HTTP also provides access to other Internet protocols, among them:
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) etc.

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a standardized addressing scheme for Internet resources used to link documents on the Internet the browser knows where to go to get the document basic format of an URL type-of-resource:// domain.address:port/path/filename file:///C|/My Documents/resume.htm news:han.protocol.http telnet://


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Home Networking


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the collection of technologies and services that make it possible to connect
PCs Network devices Appliances Security equipment


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Why now?
Building Internet into consumer products is now possible
Standardization has occurred Costs are low

Low-cost, high-speed LAN and routers

Ethernet, IEEE 1394, Phone Wire, PLC, RF, etc. Video rate networks - IEEE 1394,Gigabit Ethernet

Modem and broadband networking are becoming ubiquitous

Golden age of networking


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Technology Enablers
ADSL and HFC (cable) networks
Enable broadband Internet to the home

LANs, power line carrier, phone line networks, and wireless

Enable ubiquitous connectivity

Internet connection sharing

Brings the Internet to everything in the home

The communications software infrastructure has been determined:

The Web and TCP/IP


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Analogous History
Single to multiple cars per family One to multiple phones per household Multiple phone lines per house One to multiple TVs per house

MegaTrend: From one Internet device per home to MANY


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Roles for Home Networking

Extension of current use of Internet by PDAs, tablets, multiple PCs

Telephony, videophone, chat, conferencing

Games, TV, high-fidelity audio

Lights, HVAC, security, appliances

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Connecting Everything
Public networks PSTN, Internet
Network camera

HomePNA Phone line network Power line network

Hub Web phone


IEEE 1394
Communications and control Camera Scanner Entertainment Center

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Challenges for deployment of home network

Ease of installation
There are no Net admins at home

Network configuration has to be automatic

There are no Net admins at home

Network health and recovery

There are no Net admins at home


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Home Network Architecture

Public networks PSTN, Internet

Internet Connection Sharing

End to end broadband

New media support



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Architecture for The Future Leveraging Web technologies

Great standards exist today

Great services exist today

Today: eCommerce, search Early Stages: Internet audio/video, IP Telephony - much like early 1950s TV Billions of Web hits served daily

Internet exists and it works


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TCP/IP and Web is the software infrastructure

Web is evolving
HTTP v1.1 for performance improvements XML extends Web for software applications
Pages can now be simply data Internet Explorer 5.0 has XML support

Easy to wrap existing programs/tools/systems in Web

Programming language neutral Contents neutral Operating system neutral


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Web for Devices

Device or service specific code Embedded web server TCP/IP stack Ethernet, 1394 or PPP/async driver

Application specific size 20 ~ 80K bytes code 30 ~ 90K gates on silicon 30 ~ 90K bytes code 30 ~ 80K gates on silicon Device specific size


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Example Web Devices

Refrigerator PC: Sharewave


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Example Web Devices

Internet-on-a-chip design from Toshiba Semiconductor
Network Stack - TCP, IP, UDP and PPP General Sockets - 4 - Email - SMTP, POP3 and MIME Web - HTTPv1.0 and HTMLv3.2 (text only) Japanese and English character support CPU Interface (Generic 80x86 CPU Interface) SRAM Interface Physical Layer Interface (RS232C & parallel port) Decoder Interface



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Example Web device

Interactive TV from Spyglass


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Example Web devices

Internet Router from POSTECH


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