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NEBOSH International General Certificate

Copyright RMS Publishing IGC First Edition - IGC1 Element 5 - v.1.0 - Slide 1 860409

Licence details
RMS Publishing Limited Victoria House, Lower High Street, Stourbridge DY8 1TA ACT Associates Limited. First Edition September 2007. All rights reserved. No part of this presentation may be stored in a retrieval system, reproduced, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without either the prior written permission of the Publishers. This presentation may not be lent, resold, hired out or otherwise disposed of by way of trade in any form other than that in which it is published, without the prior consent of the Publishers. This presentation may not be reproduced in any form without prior consent of the Publishers other than a single copy thumbnail handout for immediate use by the tutor. Whilst every effort is made to ensure the completeness and accuracy of the information contained herein, RMS/ACT can bear no liability for any omission or error.

Issued to: Strabag Single Licence Licence No: 860409

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NEBOSH International General Certificate


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Unit IGC1 Management of International health and safety


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Element 5
Risk assessment
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Risk assessment Learning outcomes 5.1 5.2 5.3 Explain the aims and objectives of risk assessment Identify hazards by means of workplace inspection and analysis of tasks Explain the principles and practice of risk assessment

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Risk assessment

Contents of element
5.1 5.2 5.3 Aims and objectives Identifying hazards Principles and practice of risk assessment

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Risk assessment

Contents of element
5.1 5.2 5.3 Aims and objectives Identifying hazards Principles and practice of risk assessment

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Risk assessment
Aims and objectives

Definitions of hazard and risk


Hazard

Something that has the potential to cause harm


Following hazard identification, it is possible to establish that risks exist, that are or are not acceptable. In order to establish the presence of a risk it is necessary to identify the existence of hazards that may give rise to unplanned risk.

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Risk assessment
Aims and objectives

Definitions of hazard and risk


Risk A risk is the likelihood that a hazard will cause a specified harm to someone or something

The presence of hazards and a given level of risk may not be a cause for immediate concern. However, some situations may exist or arise where there is a significant danger of loss.

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Risk assessment
Aims and objectives

Objectives of risk assessment


General points An identification of what within your work or workplace, which may have the potential to cause harm to people or workers, so that you can consider whether you have provided sufficient precautions or need to do more to prevent harm Involves:

Identification of the hazards at work


Evaluation of the risks from the hazards Deciding how to control the risks

Implementing a control strategy


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Risk assessment
Aims and objectives

Outcomes of incidents
Human harm Legal Economic

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Risk assessment
Aims and objectives

Different types of incident


Ill-health Injury accident Dangerous occurrence Near-miss Damage only The distinction between different incidents in summary

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Risk assessment
Aims and objectives

Different types of incident

Ill-health The health and well-being of individuals may be affected by a number of work-related factors Ill health may develop over a long period of time Examples of work-related ill health are: - Asbestosis - Pneumoconiosis - Silicosis More recently ill health effects have been related to work load and stress

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Risk assessment
Aims and objectives

Different types of incident


Injury accident Some injury effects will be acute in nature Strains or sprains of muscles or ligaments caused by inappropriate lifting of heavy items Other common injuries include: - Cuts - Burns - Bruises

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Risk assessment
Aims and objectives

Different types of incident


Dangerous occurrence Definition of dangerous occurrences will differ depending on your countrys enforcement reporting requirements Significantly hazardous incidents such as the collapse of, the overturning of, or the failure of: - Any load-bearing part of any lift or hoist - Mobile powered access platform - Access cradle or window-cleaning cradle - Excavator - Pile-driving frame or rig - Fork lift truck / scaffold (more than five metres high)
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Risk assessment
Aims and objectives

Different types of incident


Near-miss
An unplanned, uncontrolled event which led to, or could have led to injury / loss A near-miss is an incident with the potential to cause harm, but where there is no measurable injury / loss It is critical to analyse near-misses to assess the potential of the event This enables corrective action to be put in place to prevent a reoccurrence of the incident

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Risk assessment
Aims and objectives

Different types of incident

Damage-only Substantial damage occurs to property and materials at work annually Significant losses are associated with workplace fires Study of the incidence of damage and potential losses may be a useful predictive tool Series of collisions into scaffold on a site with poor access and lighting may be predictive of a vehicle failure / scaffold collapse leading to personal injury Employer to take corrective action before any worker loss occurs
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Risk assessment
Aims and objectives
Results of an accident

Near Miss

Equipment damage

Minor Injury

Death
Source: ACT

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Risk assessment
Aims and objectives

Different types of incident



The distinction between different incidents in summary An accident is an event which brings about a result Accidents result in losses of one kind or another Situation where a stone falls from a height could result in: A near miss - Falls into the ground and there is no damage or injury Damage - Hits a pane of glass, but no injury Injury accident - Hits a person causing cut and bruises to hand

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Risk assessment
Aims and objectives

Different types of incident

The distinction between different incidents in summary Fatal accident - If the person was working directly under the stone when it fell there could have been a fatality The difference between a near-miss and a fatal accident in terms of time and distance can be very small indeed An old adage says Never waste an accident A near miss is just as valuable as a serious injury/damage, in fact even more valuable and an excellent opportunity not to be missed

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Risk assessment
Aims and objectives

Typical ratios of incident outcomes and their relevance


Led by Frank Bird Study of 1,750,000 accidents in 21 industries Fixed ratio between losses and near-misses Illustrated in the pyramid model of incident outcomes

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Risk assessment
Aims and objectives

Frank Birds accident ratio study

Serious or disabling injury Minor injuries Property damage Near misses


Source: Frank Bird

10
30 600
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Risk assessment
Aims and objectives

Utility and limitations of accident ratios in accident prevention


For statistics derived to be of value their limitations have to be understood Variables in work methods, hours of work, hazard controls and management system Difficult to make comparisons outside the organisation deriving the data Ratios are best suited to comparison of performance of the same organisation over similar periods of time, for example yearly

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Risk assessment

Contents of element
5.1 5.2 5.3 Aims and objectives Identifying hazards Principles and practice of risk assessment

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Risk assessment
Identifying hazards

Identifying hazards Accidents in terms of injury Health related hazards

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Risk assessment
Identifying hazards

Identifying hazards

Sources and form of harm First step is to identify the hazards Achievable in many ways Methods used need to be accessed All hazards ranked in order of severity Break down into component parts for complex activities Job analysis

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Risk assessment
Identifying hazards

Identifying hazards
Roles of inspections General workplace inspections Technical inspections Preventive maintenance inspections Pre use checks of equipment

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Risk assessment
Identifying hazards

Identifying hazards
Job / task safety analysis Job based Task based Intrinsic hazards Incidence of accidents Work organisation Tasks

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Risk assessment
Identifying hazards

Identifying hazards
Example of a job/task analysis
Task Hazards Good Skills Influences on behaviour Learning Method

Sharpening a knife using a steel

Cuts to hand, arms

Co-ordination of knife and steel movement

Sharpness of knife Condition of knife Space limitations Other people present Condition of floor

Demonstration of technique Repetitive practice until speed increases

Dispensing strong chemical compounds from 200 litre container

Burns to eyes, face and body Inhalation of fumes

Correct position of drum cradle, drip tray and container, use of tap Correct protection clothing, fitting and limitations

Strength of chemicals Type of fume Corrosive effects Illumination Ventilation

Demonstration of techniques Practice using PPE Hazards of spillage, splashing and fumes

Source: ACT

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Risk assessment
Identifying hazards

Identifying hazards
Legislation Information about hazards can be obtained by considering a range of organisation standards legislative documents Such as ISO International Standards

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Risk assessment
Identifying hazards

Identifying hazards
Manufacturers information Manufacturers should provide product equipment health and safety information Information must be relevant and kept up to date Those that design, manufacture, supply or install should inform of any issues Manufacturers/suppliers of equipment should provide material safety data sheets

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Risk assessment
Identifying hazards

Identifying hazards
Incident data Statistics provide useful response information from past accident experience Types include: - Lost time - Sickness absence - First aid records

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Risk assessment
Identifying hazards

Accidents in terms of injury


Hazard Slips/trips/falls Falls from height; falling objects Associated risks Fall of a person on the same level Fall of a person; object/material

Collision with objects


Trapping/crushing under or between object/s Manual handling Contact with machinery/hand tools Electricity Transport Contact with chemicals Asphyxiation/drowning Fire and explosion Animals Violence
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Bumps and bruises. Striking head on low beams


Serious injury caused by loss of load from crane, collision with site vehicles Back strains, cuts, injury to joints Parts being ejected from the machine and trapping a person. Trapping / crushing hands etc. Entanglement of clothing or hair. Fire, shock, burns Collision with people and/or property Dermatitis, burns, poisoning Drowning Static electrical sparks causing explosions in say, flammable or dusty atmospheres Anthrax, psittacosis caused by coming into contact with animal hides Unhappy customers/clients, criminals, patients in hospitals

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Risk assessment
Identifying hazards

Health related hazards


Chemical hazards Biological hazards Physical hazards Psychological hazards

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Risk assessment
Identifying hazards

Health related hazards


Chemical hazards Acids and alkalis - dermatitis and burns Metals - lead and mercury poisoning Non metals - arsenic and phosphorus poisoning Gases - carbon monoxide poisoning, arsine poisoning Organic compounds - occupational cancers Dust - silicosis, coal workers pneumoconiosis

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Risk assessment
Identifying hazards

Health related hazards


Biological hazards Animal-borne - anthrax, brucellosis, leptospirosis Human-borne - viral hepatitis Vegetable-borne - aspergillosis (farmers lung) Others (water/land) - legionella

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Risk assessment
Identifying hazards

Health related hazards


Physical hazards Heat - heat cataract, heat stroke Lighting - miners nystagmus Noise - noise induced hearing loss Vibration - vibration induced white finger Radiation - radiation sickness, burns, arc eye Pressure - decompression sickness

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Risk assessment
Identifying hazards

Health related hazards


Psychological hazards Work pressure, bullying - stress, alcohol / narcotic abuse

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Risk assessment

Contents of element
5.1 5.2 5.3 Aims and objectives Identifying hazards Principles and practice of risk assessment

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Risk assessment
Principles and practice of risk assessment

Identifying population at risk


General groups at risk Specific groups at risk - Operatives / workers - Maintenance staff - Cleaners - Contractors - Visitors / public

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Risk assessment
Principles and practice of risk assessment

Identification of hazards
Walk around Ask workers Trade association Check manufacturers instructions Accident and ill-health records Long-term hazards to health

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Risk assessment
Principles and practice of risk assessment

Evaluating risk and adequacy of current controls


Likelihood of harm and probable severity Qualitative and semi-quantitative risk ranking Residual risk Acceptable / tolerable risk levels Use of guidance Sources and examples of legislation Applying controls to specified hazards General control hierarchy Prioritisation based on risk Distinction between priorities and time scales
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Risk assessment
Principles and practice of risk assessment

Evaluating risk and adequacy of current controls


Likelihood of harm and probable severity Consequence Likelihood

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Risk assessment
Principles and practice of risk assessment

Evaluating risk and adequacy of current controls


Likelihood of harm and probable severity Factors affecting likelihood Competence of operators Levels and quality of supervision Attitudes of operators and supervisors Environmental conditions e.g. adverse weather Frequency and duration of exposure

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Risk assessment
Principles and practice of risk assessment

Evaluating risk and adequacy of current controls


Qualitative and semi-quantitative risk ranking Qualitative Semi-quantitative Risk ranking

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Risk assessment
Principles and practice of risk assessment

Evaluating risk and adequacy of current controls


Consequence categories
5. Major Causing death to one or more people. Loss or damage is such that it could cause serious business disruption (e.g. major fire, explosion or structural damage). Loss/damage in excess of (___________). Causing permanent disability (e.g. loss of limb, sight or hearing). Loss/damage in excess of (___________). Causing temporary disability (e.g. fractures). (___________). Loss/damage in excess of

4.

High

3. 2.

Medium Low

Causing significant injuries (e.g. sprains, bruises, and lacerations). Loss/damage in excess of (___________) e.g. damage to fixtures and fittings. Causing minor injuries (e.g. cuts, scratches). No lost time likely other than for first aid treatment. Loss/damage in excess of (___________) e.g. superficial damage to interior decorations.

1.

Minor

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Risk assessment
Principles and practice of risk assessment

Evaluating risk and adequacy of current controls


Likelihood categories
5. Almost Certain Absence of any management controls. If conditions remain unchanged there is almost a 100% certainty that an accident will happen (e.g. broken rung on a ladder, live exposed electrical conductor, and untrained personnel). Serious failures in management controls. The effects of human behaviour or other factors could cause an accident but is unlikely without this additional factor (e.g. ladder not secured properly, oil spilled on floor, poorly trained personnel). Insufficient or substandard controls in place. Loss is unlikely during normal operation, however it may occur in emergencies or non-routine conditions (e.g. keys left in forklift trucks; obstructed gangways; refresher training required). The situation is generally well managed, however occasional lapses could occur. This also applies to situations where people are required to behave safely in order to protect themselves but are well trained. Loss, accident or illness could only occur under freak conditions. The situation is well managed and all reasonable precautions have been taken. Ideally, this should be the normal state of the workplace.

4.

High

3.

Medium

2.

Low

1.

Improbable

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Risk assessment
Principles and practice of risk assessment

Evaluating risk and adequacy of current controls


Risk rating categories Risk rating Risk rating Risk rating 1-9 10-15 16-25 Low Medium High

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Risk assessment
Principles and practice of risk assessment

Evaluating risk and adequacy of current controls


Residual risk This is the risk which remains when controls have been decided For example: - Whilst a fall from a height may be prevented by a guard rail, the potential to slip or trip may remain present

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Risk assessment
Principles and practice of risk assessment

Evaluating risk and adequacy of current controls


Acceptable/tolerable risk levels Societal standards change and risk acceptability reduces each year Successful organisations will reduce the level of risk as far as possible This is often achieved through the use of new improvements in technology

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Risk assessment
Principles and practice of risk assessment

Evaluating risk and adequacy of current controls


Use of guidance When making a judgement as to whether controls are adequate care has to be taken Consider relevant guidance This can be in the form of: - Guidance to legislation - Official guidance documents - Industry standard guidance - Relevant International/local standards

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Risk assessment
Principles and practice of risk assessment

Evaluating risk and adequacy of current controls


Sources and examples of legislation Many sources of legislation available from Government, international organisations or manufacturers websites Legislation examples: - International Labour Organisation ILO-OSH 2001 - HSE United Kingdom - INDG163 - British Standards Institute

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Risk assessment
Principles and practice of risk assessment

Evaluating risk and adequacy of current controls


Applying controls to specified hazards Controls will need to be identified and applied to specific hazards For example: - Electrical - Chemical - Manual handling

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Risk assessment
Principles and practice of risk assessment

Evaluating risk and adequacy of current controls


General control hierarchy E liminate R educe I solation C ontrol P ersonal protective equipment D iscipline

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Risk assessment
Principles and practice of risk assessment

Evaluating risk and adequacy of current controls


Prioritisation based on risk When risk potential has been identified prioritisation can be given to the order of work to mitigate the risk

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Risk assessment
Principles and practice of risk assessment

Evaluating risk and adequacy of current controls


Distinction between priorities and time scales Often risks are of high priority The need to establish realistic time scales is also critical It is possible to carry out some aspects in the short and medium term To reduce the likelihood of a loss and remove the need to give everything considered a high priority for completion

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Risk assessment
Principles and practice of risk assessment

Recording significant findings


Format Information to be recorded

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Risk assessment
Principles and practice of risk assessment

Recording significant findings


Risk assessment form

Source: RMS Publishing


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Risk assessment
Principles and practice of risk assessment

Reasons for reviewing


Examples of circumstances When results of monitoring are adversely not as expected A change in process, work methods or materials Changes in the workforce Changes in legislation Introduction of new plant or technology New information becoming available As time passes by - the risk assessment should be periodically reviewed and updated

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Risk assessment
Principles and practice of risk assessment

Reviewing
Monitoring techniques Preventive maintenance inspections Safety representative / committee inspections Statutory and maintenance scheme inspections, tests and examinations Safety tours and inspections Occupational health surveys Air monitoring Safety audits

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Risk assessment
Principles and practice of risk assessment

Criteria for a suitable and sufficient risk assessment


Training course content should include: Legal requirements Process of identifying hazards and evaluating risks Identification and selection of control measures Awareness of individuals own limitations Accessing sources of information Report-writing skills Interpretation of regulations and standards Means available for communicating the outcomes of the assessment
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Risk assessment
Principles and practice of risk assessment

Special case applications of risk assessment


Young persons Expectant and nursing mothers Disabled workers Lone workers

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Risk assessment

Contents of element
5.1 5.2 5.3 Aims and objectives Identifying hazards Principles and practice of risk assessment

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Element 5
Risk assessment
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Unit IGC1 Management of International health and safety


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NEBOSH International General Certificate


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