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MCE 439 COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING

Lecture 6: Hardware Components

HARDWARE COMPONENTS FOR AUTOMATION


Sections: 1. Sensors 2. Actuators 3. Analog-to-Digital Conversion 4. Digital-to-Analog Conversion 5. Input/Output Devices for Discrete Data

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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

COMPUTER-PROCESS INTERFACE
To implement process control, the computer must collect data from and transmit signals to the production process Components required to implement the interface:

Sensors to measure continuous and discrete process variables Actuators to drive continuous and discrete process parameters Devices that convert continuous analog signals to digital data. Devices that convert digital data into analog signals. I/O devices for discrete data
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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

COMPUTER PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEM

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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

DIGITAL VERSUS ANALOG CONTROLLED SYSTEM

1995 Glenco/McGraw Hill. All rights reserved. Automated Manufacturing Systems. by S. Brian Morriss.

SENSORS
A sensor is a transducer that converts a physical stimulus from one form into a more useful form (usually electrical quantity such as voltage) to measure the stimulus Used to measure such variables as:

presence or nearness of an object. Speed, acceleration, or rate of flow of object. Force or pressure acting on an object. Temperature of an object. Size, shape, or mass of an object. Optical properties of an object. Electrical or magnetic properties of an object.

Two basic categories:


1. 2.

Analog e.g. thermocouple, strain gages. Discrete


Binary produces an on/off signal. Digital produces a digital output signal either in form of set of parallel status bits or a series of pulses that can be counted. 6

1995 Glenco/McGraw Hill. All rights reserved. Automated Manufacturing Systems. by S. Brian Morriss.

SENSORS
Active sensor responds to the stimulus without the need for external power. e.g. thermocouple. Passive sensor requires an external source of power to operate. e.g. thermistor

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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

SENSOR TRANSFER FUNCTION


The relationship between the value of the physical stimulus and the value of the signal produced by the sensor in response to the stimulus S = f(s) where S = output signal, s = stimulus, and f(s) is the functional relationship between them Ideal functional form is simple proportional relationship: S = C + ms Limit switches and other binary sensors have functional relationships that are defined as: S=1 if s>0 and S=0 if s 0
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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

EXAMPLE
A tool-chip thermocouple is used to measure the cutting temperature in a turning operation. The two dissimilar metals in a tool-chip thermocouple are the tool material and the workpiece metal. During the turning operation, the chip from the work metal forms a junction with the rake face of the tool to create the thermocouple at exactly the location where it is desired to measure temperature: at the interface between the tool and the chip. A separate calibration procedure must be performed for each combination of tool material and work metal. In the combination of interest here, the calibration curve (inverse transfer function) for a particular grade of cemented carbide tool when used to turn C1040 steel is the following: T = 88.1Etc 127, where T = temperature in F, and Etc = the emf output of the thermocouple in mV. (a) Revise the temperature equation so that it is in the form of a transfer function similar to that given in Eq. (6.3). What is the sensitivity of this tool-chip thermocouple? (b) During a straight turning operation, the emf output of the thermocouple was measured as 9.25 mV. What was the corresponding cutting temperature? Solution: (a) T = 88.1 Etc - 127 S = Etc s = T s=C+ms Manipulating the temperature equation into the form of Eq. (6.3), T + 127 = 88.1 Etc Etc = (T + 127) / 88.1 = 0.01135 T + 1.4415 In Eq. (6.3), C = 1.4415 and m = 0.01135, where m = sensitivity 9 (b) T = 88.1(9.25) 127 = 815 127 = 688 F

ACTUATORS
Hardware devices that convert a controller command signal into a change in a physical parameter The change is usually mechanical (e.g., position or velocity) An actuator is a transducer because it changes one type of physical quantity into some alternative form An actuator is usually activated by a low-level command signal, so an amplifier may be required to provide sufficient power to drive the actuator Some actuators can only be turned on or off. A heater fan helps to control temperature when it is turned on or off by a temperature control system. Other actuators respond proportionally with the signal they receive from the controller.
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

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ACTUATORS

Actuators can be purchased to change such variables as: Presence or nearness of an object. Speed, acceleration or rate of flow of an object. Force or pressure acting on an object. Temperature of an object. Final machined dimensions of an object.

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1995 Glenco/McGraw Hill. All rights reserved. Automated Manufacturing Systems. by S. Brian Morriss.

TYPES OF ACTUATORS
1.

2.

3.

Electrical actuators( can be linear or rotational) Electric motors- converts electrical power into mechanical power DC servomotors AC motors Stepper motors Solenoids Hydraulic actuators Use hydraulic fluid to amplify the controller command signal Pneumatic actuators Use compressed air as the driving force
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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

CONSTRUCTION OF AN ELECTRIC MOTOR

Central rotating section called rotor or armature. Usually doesnt require connection to the power supply. May contain conductors or permanent magnets. Some motors have copper winding connected to power supply through slip rings. An armature is similar to the rotor except that it includes winding of copper wire to which electric current is supplied via a commutator.

Rotor or armature is supported on a bearing in the housing of the motor.


The stationary house of the motor (stator) provides the magnetic field essential to the operation of the motor. Some motors need AC voltage, others DC power supply. More sophisticated power supplies often called motor controller if motor is large and requires gradual starting or stopping, or torque, speed/ shaft position must be controlled.
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1995 Glenco/McGraw Hill. All rights reserved. Automated Manufacturing Systems. by S. Brian Morriss.

A ROTATING ELECTRIC MOTOR


Most electrical motors are rotational. Electric current supplied to the motor generates a continuously switching magnetic field that causes the rotor to rotate in its attempt to always align its poles with the opposite poles of the stator. DC motors AC motors Stepper motors

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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

THEORY OF OPERATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS


1.

Opposite Magnetic Poles attract each other. Motor has


rotor with permanent magnet/ or material when magnetized have reluctance to lose magnetic orientation, so the rotor can be caused to exactly follow magnetic field as the field rotates.

AC synchronous motor. Stepper motors

2.

3.

A current moving through a wire across a magnetic field will cause a force to be exerted on the wire. When a conductor moves across a magnetic field, a voltage is produced in it that will cause a current to flow ( if the conductor is part of a closed circuit).
DC motors AC induction motors

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1995 Glenco/McGraw Hill. All rights reserved. Automated Manufacturing Systems. by S. Brian Morriss.

DC MOTORS
HTTP://ELECTRONICS.HOWSTUFFWORKS.COM/MOTOR1.HTM

Powered by a constant current and voltage. Switching magnetic field obtained by commutator (rotary switching device). Convenience of using direct current as source of power. Servomotor means that a feedback loop is used to achieve speed control. Armature rotates because of torque caused by current in the armature windings, which are surrounded by the magnetic field. The magnitude of the rotor torque is a function of the current passing through the windings. T= KtI= motor torque constant * net current flowing through armature.

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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

DC MOTORS

The speed is limited by the generation of counter electro motive force as the armature moves in the field.

Rotating the armature in the magnetic field of the stator produces a voltage across terminals, called back emf Eb=Kv = voltage constant of the motor * angular velocity. where rotational speed N= 60 / (2 )

Given the resistance of the armature Ra and the input voltage Vin Ia= Vin/Ra.
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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

DC MOTORS
Thus the actual armature current depends on the rotational speed of the rotor. Ia= (Vin Eb)/(Ra) The mechanical power delivered by the motor is the product of torque and velocity. P=T The corresponding horsepower is given by HP=T/745.7 The servomotor is connected either directly or through a gear reduction to a piece of machinery. The apparatus represents the load that is driven by the motor. Which requires a certain torque to operate.

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

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DC MOTORS

In simplest case, the torque load TL=KL = constant of proportionality * angular velocity.

Model presented neglects certain loses and inefficiencies that occur in these motors. Neglects dynamics of motor operation.

To control speed of a DC motor:

Control the amount of current that flows in the armature. Control the strength of the magnetic field.
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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

EXAMPLE
A DC servomotor has a torque constant = 0.088 N-m/A and a voltage constant = 0.12 V/(rad/sec). The armature resistance is 2.3 ohms. A terminal voltage of 30 V is used to operate the motor. Determine (a) the starting torque generated by the motor just as the voltage is applied, (b) the maximum speed at a torque of zero, and (c) the operating point of the motor when it is connected to a load whose torque characteristic is proportional to speed with a constant of proportionality = 0.011 N-m/(rad/sec). Solution: (a) Ia = 30/2.3 = 13.04 A T = 0.088(13.04) = 1.1475 N-m (b) Max occurs at Kv = Vin 0.12 = 30 = 30/0.12 = 250 rad/sec (c) TL = 0.011 T = = 0.088 = 0.088(13.043 0.0522) = 1.148 0.00459 Set T = TL 1.148 0.00459 = 0.011 1.148 = (0.011 + 0.00459) = 0.01559 = 73.6 rad/sec

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

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TORQUE-SPEED CURVE OF A DC SERVOMOTOR AND LOAD TORQUE PLOT

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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

DISADVANTAGES OF DC MOTORS

The commutator and brushes used to conduct current from the stator assembly to the rotor results in maintenance problems with these motors. The most common electrical power source in industry is alternating current not direct current. In order to use AC power to drive a DC motor , a rectifier must be added to convert the alternating current to direct current.

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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

AC MOTORS

Operate by generating a rotating magnetic field in the stator, where the speed of the rotation depends on the frequency of the input electrical power. The rotor is forced to turn at the same speed as the rotating magnetic field. Induction motors: Makes use of 2nd and 3rd principle. Motor is called induction because AC generated field rotates around a stationary rotor. The relative movement of stationary conductor to the moving field causes current to be induced into these conductors (principle 3). the presence of current in the field causes the rotor to rotate (principle 2). When the rotor speed is slightly less than the speed of rotation of the field, the induced current and torque are just sufficient to move the load attached to the rotor. Most widely used, simple construction and low manufacturing cost. AC induction motor can be controlled by controlling the speed of rotation of the field. If DC power is electronically switched around the field coil instead of 23 having an AC supply, then motor could be called a brushless DC motor.
1995 Glenco/McGraw Hill. All rights reserved. Automated Manufacturing Systems. by S. Brian Morriss.

AC MOTORS

Synchronous motors Rotor follows the magnetic field exactly as it rotates around the housing. The synchronous motors rotor will lock onto the magnetic poles of the field because the rotor has magnet as well. The magnets in the rotor maybe permanent magnet.
Some synchronous motors require small auxiliary motors o accelerate them to the speed at which they can lock on Others are caused to accelerate by the inclusion of squirrel cages in their rotors so that they start as if they were induction motors. With control of frequency of AC supply, it is possible to control the speed of field rotation as that it accelerates slowly enough that the rotor can stay locked on.

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1995 Glenco/McGraw Hill. All rights reserved. Automated Manufacturing Systems. by S. Brian Morriss.

STEPPER MOTOR

In terms of construction , have much in common with AC synchronous motors. Permanent magnet type has a rotor with permanent magnets that follow the magnetic field as it rotates around n he field winding. Electromagnetic poles in a stepper motors housing are designed such that they can be individually switched to DC. The rotor is supposed to step from one activated pole to the next as the poles sequentially turn on and off. A separately supplied stepper motor controller controls in which order the winding receive DC. Stepper motor controllers can ramp motors from one speed to the next by gradually changing the rate at which steps are supplied.
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1995 Glenco/McGraw Hill. All rights reserved. Automated Manufacturing Systems. by S. Brian Morriss.

STEPPER MOTORS
Provides rotation in the form of discrete angular displacement called step angles. Each angular step is actuated by a discrete electrical pulse. The total angular rotation is controlled by the number of pulses received by the motor. Rotational speed is controlled by the frequency of the pulses. Step angle = 360 / ns ; where ns is the # of steps of the stepper motor. Total angle which motor rotates Am= # of pulses received by the motor * =np*

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

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STEPPER MOTORS
Angular velocity is given by: = 2**fp / ns Rotational speed is given by: N= 60*fp / ns Where fp is the pulse frequency (pulses/sec). Torque decreases with increased rotational speed. Two operating modes: Locked-step mode- each pulse causes a discrete angular step ( motor starts and stops) Slewing mode- usually with higher speeds, motor rotational is more or less continuous and doesnt allow for stopping and reversing with each subsequent step. Used in open loop control for applications in which torque and power requirements are low to modest. Widely used in machine tools, other production machines, robots, etc

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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

TYPICAL TORQUE-SPEED CURVE OF A STEPPER MOTOR

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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

OTHER ELECTRICAL ACTUATORS

Solenoids Movable plunger inside a stationary wire coil When current is applied to the coil, it acts as a magnet, drawing the plunger into the coil When current is switched off, a spring return the plunger into its previous position. Often used to open and close valves in fluid flow systems Rotary solenoids are available to provide rotary motion usually over a limited angular range. Electromagnetic relays On-off electrical switch consisting of a stationary coil and a movable arm that is made to open or close electrical contact by means of magnetic field when current is passed through the coil. It can be operated with relatively low current but it opens and closes circuits that carry high current/ voltage.

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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

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Solenoid
1995 Glenco/McGraw Hill. All rights reserved. Automated Manufacturing Systems. by S. Brian Morriss.

Relay switch

HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC


ACTUATORS

Powered by pressurized fluids. Hydraulic oil; fluid is incompressible Q=v * A F = p *A provide high torques Pneumatic -Compressed air difficult to predict the speed and force characteristics High speed applications Similar in application but different in construction. Available that provide linear/ rotary motion. Use pistons, vanes, turbine blades Rotational speed of a hydraulic motion is directly proportional to the fluid flow rate = KQ
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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

CYLINDER AND PISTON: (A) SINGLE-ACTING AND (B) DOUBLE-ACTING

(a)

(b)

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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION
An ADC converts a continuous analog signal from transducer into digital code for use by computer 1. Sensor and transducer 2. Signal conditioning Filtering to remove random noise Conversion from one signal form to another e.g. Current to Voltage 3. Multiplexer Used to time share the analog- digital converter among the input channels Cost effective alternative to a dedicated ADCs for each channel 4. Amplifier Scale the incoming signal up/down within range of the converter 5. Analog to digital converter Convert the incoming analog signal into its digital counterpart
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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

HARDWARE DEVICES IN ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION

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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION

ADC consists of three phases:


1. 2.

3.

Sampling converts the continuous signal into a series of discrete analog signals at periodic intervals Quantization each discrete analog is converted into one of a finite number of (previously defined) discrete amplitude levels Encoding discrete amplitude levels are converted into digital code

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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

FEATURES OF AN ADC

Sampling rate rate at which continuous analog signal is sampled Conversion time how long it takes to convert the sampled signal to digital code Type of conversion procedure Number of bits n used to define the converted digital value. Resolution precision with which the analog signal is evaluated. depends on number of quantization levels= 2n RADC= L/(2n-1); L = full scale range of the ADC 0-10 V Quantaization error = +/- 0.5 RADC Conversion method means by which analog signal is encoded into digital equivalent Example Successive approximation method
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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

ANALOG SIGNAL CONVERTED INTO A SERIES OF DISCRETE DATA BY A-TO-D CONVERTER

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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

SUCCESSIVE APPROXIMATION METHOD


A series of trial voltages are successively compared to the input signal whose value is unknown Number of trial voltages = number of bits used to encode the signal First trial voltage is 1/2 the full scale range of the ADC If the remainder of the input voltage exceeds the trial voltage, then a bit value of 1 is entered, if less than trial voltage then a bit value of zero is entered The successive bit values, multiplied by their respective trial voltages and added, becomes the encoded value of the input signal

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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

SUCCESSIVE APPROXIMATION METHOD


Example for input voltage of 6.8 V Encode the 6-bit register with a full scale range of 10 V

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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERSION
Converts the digital output of the computer into a continuous analog signal to drive an analog actuator (or other analog device) DAC consists of two steps: 1. Decoding digital output of computer is converted into a series of analog values at discrete moments in time Transferring the digital value from the computer to a binary register that controls a reference voltage source 2. Data holding each successive value is changed into a continuous signal that lasts until the next sampling interval

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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

DATA HOLDING STEP IN DAC: (A) ZERO-ORDER HOLD AND (B) FIRST-ORDER HOLD

(a)

(b)

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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICES FOR DISCRETE DATA


Binary data: Contact input interface input data to computer Contact output interface output data from computer Discrete data other than binary: Contact input interface input data to computer Contact output interface output data from computer Pulse data: Pulse counters - input data to computer Pulse generators - output data from computer

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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

CONTACT INPUT/OUTPUT INTERFACES


Contact input interface series of contacts that are open or closed to indicate the status of individual binary devices such as limit switches and valves
The computer periodically scans the contacts to update values in memory Can also be used for discrete data other than binary (e.g., a photoelectric sensor array)

Contact output interface communicates on/off signals from the computer to the process

Values are maintained until changed by the computer


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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

PULSE COUNTERS AND GENERATORS


Pulse counter converts a series of pulses (pulse train) into a digital value
Digital value is then entered into the computer through its input channel Most common counting electrical pulses Used for both counting and measurement applications

Pulse generator a device that produces a series of electrical signals

The number of pulses or frequency of the pulse train is specified by the computer
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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.