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BEng (Hons) Petroleum Engineering

Course: Introduction To Petroleum Engineering Instructor Dr. Tarek Darwich

Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

Course Outlines:
What is Petroleum Engineering? The Life Cycle of Oil and Gas projects, Origin, formation and accumulation of Petroleum, Oil & Gas Exploration, Appraisal of Oil & Gas Discoveries, Development of Oil & Gas Discoveries, Producing Oil & Gas Fields, Transportation of Oil & Gas, The Petroleum Industry & the Environment, Petroleum Economics.
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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

Well Drilling Organisational Structure

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

UK Gas News December 2012

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

Main Components of Drilling Rigs


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Power System Hoisting System Rotary System Circulating System Well Control and Monitoring System

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

Drilling Rig Circulation System


It is the closed hydraulic circuit which allows the mud to flow from the surface to the bottom of the hole, inside the drill string, and subsequently back to the surface, in the drill string-borehole annulus.
The Circulation System consists of the following main components:
Mud pumps Distribution lines The mud cleaning and accumulation system

The mud from the hole has to have the cuttings removed before being reinjected to the bottom of the hole.

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

Drilling Rig Circulating System

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

The Mud Cycle


The flow of circulated drilling mud can be described as from the mud pit via: the mud mixing hopper, where various additives like weighting material etc. can be mixed into the mud, or the suction line to the mud pumps.
At the mud pumps the mud is pressured up to the required mud pressure value.

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

The Mud Cycle

(continued)

From the mud pumps the mud is pushed through the stand pipe (a pipe fixed mounted at the derrick), the rotary hose (flexible connection that allows the fed of the mud into the vertically moving drillstring), via the swivel into the drillstring.
Inside the drillstring (kelly, drillpipe, drill collar) the mud flows down to the bit where it is forced through the nozzles to act against the bottom of the hole. From the bottom of the well the mud rises up the annuli (drill collar, drillpipe) and the mud line (mud return line) which is located above the BOP.

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

The Mud Cycle

(continued)

From the mud line the mud is fed to the mud cleaning system consisting of shale shakers, settlement tank, de-sander and de-silter. After cleaning the mud, the circulation circle is closed when the mud returns to the mud pit.

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

The Mud Cycle

(continued)

Mud mixing Hooper

Mud Pit and Mud Pump

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

The Mud Pumps


The mud pumps supply the energy necessary for circulation.
They are generally positivedisplacement piston pumps, because of the greater head these provide compared with other types of pump, e.g. centrifugal pumps. In a rig there are always at least two mud pumps, connected in parallel, both for safety reasons and for flexibility of operation.

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

The Shale Shakers


The shale shaker is designed to remove these rock cuttings and other solid materials from the drilling mud so that it can be safely reused over and over again. The shale shakers consist of a vibrating tray lined with a wire mesh screen.
Rocks and other solid materials remain on top of the screen while liquid passes through. The vibrating action of the screen helps to facilitate this process.

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

The Shale Shakers with Cuttings

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

Drilling Rig Circulating System

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

The Shale Shakers


The choice of shale shaker screen is critical to successful removal of solid materials.
The size of the holes on the screen should be matched to the size of the rock being extracted from each bore hole. It is also important to choose corrosion-resistant screen materials like galvanized steel to hold up against the extreme conditions on a drilling site. Many projects include multiple shale shakers so that the drilling mud must pass through several layers of cleaning and refinement.

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

Drilling Rig Circulation System


The principal functions of the drilling fluids are 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Subsurface pressure control Cuttings removal and transport Suspension of solid particles Sealing of permeable formations Stabilizing the wellbore Preventing formation damage Cooling and lubricating the bit and drill string

8. Transmitting hydraulic horsepower to the bit 9. Facilitating the collection of formation data

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

Drilling Fluids Functions:


Cuttings Removals & Transport:

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Drilling Fluids Functions:


Cuttings Removals & Transport:

- Efficient cuttings removal requires circulating rates that are sufficient to override the force of gravity acting upon the cuttings. - Other factors affecting the cuttings removal include drilling fluid density and rheology, annular velocity, hole angle, and cuttings-slip velocity. - In most cases, the rig hydraulics program provides for an annular velocity sufficient to result in a net upward movement of the cuttings. - Annular velocity is determined by the cross-sectional area of the annulus and the pump output

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

Drilling Rig Circulating System

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

Drilling Fluids Functions:


Suspension Of Solid Particles:

- When the rig's mud pumps are shut down and circulation is halted (e.g., during connections, trips or downtime), cuttings that have not been removed from the hole must be held in suspension. - The rate of fall of a particle through a column of drilling fluid depends on the density of the particle and the fluid, the size of the particle, the viscosity of the fluid, and the thixotropic (gel-strength) properties of the fluid. - The controlled gelling of the fluid prevents the solid particles from settling, or at least reduces their rate of fall.

- In some cases, it may be necessary to circulate for several hours before a trip in order to clean the hole of cuttings and to prevent fill in the bottom of the hole from occurring during a round trip.

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

Drilling Fluids Functions:


Viscosity:

- Viscosity (m), by definition, is the ratio of shear stress (t) to shear rate (g): - In the most general resistance to flow. sense, viscosity describes a substances

- Unit: PaS, NS/m2, kg/ms, cp, dyneS/cm2, lbfS/100ft2


- A high-viscosity drilling mud may be characterized as "thick," while a low-viscosity mud may be described as "thin."

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

Drilling Fluids Functions:


Sealing of Permeable Formations:

- As the drill bit penetrates a permeable formation, the liquid portion of the drilling fluid filters into the formation and the solids form a relatively impermeable "cake" on the borehole wall. - The quality of this filter cake governs the rate of filtrate loss to the formation. - Drilling fluid systems should be designed to deposit a thin, low permeability filter cake on the formation to limit the invasion of mud filtrate. - Potential problems related to thick filter cake and excessive filtration include tight hole conditions, poor log quality, increased torque and drag, stuck pipe, lost circulation and formation damage. - Bentonite is the best base material from which to build a tough, lowpermeability filter cake. Polymers are also used for this purpose.

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Drilling Fluids Functions:


Stabilising the wellbore:

- The borehole walls are normally competent immediately after the bit penetrates a section. - Wellbore stability is a complex balance of mechanical and chemical factors.

- The chemical composition and mud properties must combine to provide a stable wellbore until casing can be run and cemented.
- The weight of the mud must be within the necessary range to balance the mechanical forces acting on the wellbore.

- The other cause of borehole instability is a chemical reaction between the drilling fluid and the formations drilled. In most cases, this instability is a result of water absorption by the shale.
- Inhibitive fluids (calcium, sodium, potassium, and oil-base fluids) aid in preventing formation swelling.

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Drilling Fluids Functions:


Presventing Formation damage:

- Any reduction in a producing formations natural permeability is considered to be formation damage.

porosity

or

- If a large volume of drilling-fluid filtrate invades a formation, it may damage the formation and hinder hydrocarbon production.

- There are several factors to consider when selecting a drilling fluid:


- Fluid compatibility with the producing reservoir - Presence of swelling formation clays - Fractured formations - The possible reduction of permeability by invasion of nonacid soluble materials into the formation

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Drilling Fluids Functions:


Cooling and Lubricating the bit:

- Friction at the bit, and between the drillstring and wellbore, generates a considerable amount of heat. - The circulating drilling fluid transports the heat away from these frictional sites by absorbing it into the liquid phase of the fluid and carrying it away. - The amount of lubrication provided by a drilling fluid varies widely and depends on - the type and quantity of drill solids and weight material, and

- also on the chemical composition of the system as expressed in terms of pH, salinity and hardness.
- Indications of poor lubrication are high torque and drag, abnormal wear, and heat checking of drillstring components.

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Drilling Fluids Functions:


Transmitting the horsepower to the bit:

- During circulation, the rate of fluid flow should be regulated so that the mud pumps deliver the optimal amount of hydraulic energy to clean the hole ahead of the bit. - Hydraulic energy also provides power for mud motors to rotate the bit and for Measurement While Drilling (MWD) and Logging While Drilling (LWD) tools. - Hydraulics programs are based on sizing the bit nozzles to maximize the hydraulic horsepower.

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

Drilling Fluids Functions:


Facilitating the collection of formation data:

- The drilling fluid program and formation evaluation program are closely related. As drilling proceeds, for example, mud loggers monitor mud returns and drilled cuttings for signs of oil and gas. - This information is recorded on a mud log that shows lithology, penetration rate, gas detection and oil-stained cuttings, plus other important geological and drilling parameters. - Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD) and Logging-While-Drilling (LWD) procedures are influenced by the mud program, as is the selection of wireline logging tools for post-drilling evaluation.

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

Drilling Fluids Functions:


Pasrtial Support of Drilling String and Casing Weights:

- With average well depths increasing, the weight supported by the surface wellhead equipment is becoming an increasingly crucial factor in drilling. - Both drillpipe and casing are buoyed by a force equal to the weight of the drilling fluid that they displace. - When the drilling fluid density is increased, the total weight supported by the surface equipment is reduced considerably.

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Drilling Fluids Functions:


Assisting in Cementing and Completion:

- To cement casing properly, the mud must be completely displaced by the spacers, flushes and cement. - Effective mud displacement requires that the hole be near-gauge and that the mud have low viscosity and low, non-progressive gel strengths. - Completion operations such as perforating and gravel packing also require a near-gauge wellbore and may be affected by mud characteristics.

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MUD INGREDIENTS

Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

Mud Ingredients:
Various materials may be added at the surface to change or modify the characteristics of the mud:

- Weighting agents (usually barite) are added to increase the density of the mud, which helps to control subsurface pressures and build the wallcake. - Viscosifying agents (clays, polymers, and emulsified liquids) are added to thicken the mud and increase its hole-cleaning ability. - Dispersants or deflocculants may be added to thin the mud, which helps to reduce surge, swab, and circulating-pressure problems. - Clays, polymers, starches, dispersants, and asphaltic materials may be added to reduce filtration of the mud through the borehole wall. This reduces formation damage, differential sticking, and problems in log interpretation. - Salts are sometimes added to protect downhole formations or to protect the mud against future contamination, as well as to increase density.

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Mud Ingredients
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(continued):

Various materials may be added at the surface to change or modify the characteristics of the mud:

- Other mud additives may include lubricants, corrosion inhibitors, chemicals that tie up calcium ions, and flocculants to aid in the removal of cuttings at the surface. - Caustic soda is often added to increase the pH of the mud, which improves the performance of dispersants and reduces corrosion. - Preservatives, bactericides, emulsifiers, and temperature extenders may all be added to make other additives work better.

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Drilling Fluids Classification:


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Water-based drilling fluids.


Oil-based drilling fluids. Pneumatic Fluids: Air, gas, mist, foams, gasified fluids.

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Water-based Drilling Fluids


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A water-base fluid is one that uses water for the liquid phase and commercial clays for viscosity.
The continuous phase may be fresh water, brackish water, seawater, or concentrated brines containing any soluble salt. The commercial clays used may be bentonite, attapulgite, sepiolite, or polymer. aterbased drilling fluids. The use of other components such as thinners, filtration-control additives, lubricants, or inhibiting salts in formulating a particular drilling fluid is determined by the type of system required to drill the formations safely and economically.

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Oil-based Drilling Fluids


An oil-base drilling fluid is one in which the continuous phase is oil.

The terms oil-base mud and inverted or invert-emulsion mud sometimes are used to distinguish among the different types of oil-base drilling fluids.

Traditionally, an oil-base mud is a fluid with 0 to 5% by volume of water, while an invert-emulsion mud contains more than 5% by volume of water.

In many areas, diesels were used to formulate and maintain OBMs. Today, mineral oils and new synthetic fluids replace diesel and crude due to their lower toxicity.

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

Oil-based Drilling Fluids


Advantages of oil-based muds are:
Shale stability: OBMs are most suited for drilling water sensitive shales. The whole mud results non reactive towards shales. ROP: allowing to drill faster than WBMs, still providing excellent shale stability High Temperature: can drill where bottom hole temperature exceeds WBMs tolerances; can handle up to 550 0F. Lubricity: OBMs has a thin filter cake and the friction between the pipe and the wellbore is minimized, thus reducing the risk of differential sticking. Low pore pressure formation: Mud weight of OBMs can be maintained less than that of water (as low as 7.5 PPG) Corrosion control: corrosion of pipe is controlled Since oil is the external phase. Re-use: OBMs are well-suited to be used over and over again. They can be stored for long periods of time since bacterial growth is suppressed.

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering


Pneumatic Fluids
Air drilling is used primarily in hard-rock areas, and in special cases to prevent formation damage while drilling into production zones or to circumvent severe lostcirculation problems.

Air drilling includes dry air drilling, mist or foam drilling, and aerated-mud drilling.

In dry air drilling, dry air or gas is injected into the standpipe at a volume and rate sufficient to achieve the annular velocities needed to clean the hole of cuttings.

Aerated muds are used when it is impossible to drill with air alone because of water sands and/or lost-circulation situations.

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering


Mud Logging
Mud logging entails gathering qualitative and semi-quantitative data from hydrocarbon gas detectors that record the level of natural gas brought up in the mud.
Chromatographs are used to determine the chemical makeup of the gas. Other properties such as drilling rate, mud weight, flowline temperature, oil indicators, pump pressure, pump rate, lithology (rock type) of the drilled cuttings, and other data are recorded. Sampling the drilled cuttings, usually under the direction geologist, must be performed at predetermined intervals. of the wellsite

The main purpose is to identify all hydrocarbon indications from the rock samples and from the oil and gas entrained in the drilling mud. Gas detected in the mud can be interpreted to be: liberated gas, recycled gas, produced gas, contamination gas and trip gas. Only liberated gas indicates a possible prospect; the others merely confuse the analyst. .

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering


Mud Logging
Total gas in the mud is measured in units of parts per million, but does not represent the actual quantity of oil or gas in the reservoir. The most common gas component is methane (C1). Heavier hydrocarbons, such as C2 (ethane), C3 (propane), and C4 (butane) may indicate an oil or a "wet" gas zone. Heavier molecules, up to C7 may be recorded.

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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering


Mud Logging

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