Sie sind auf Seite 1von 47

WHAT GOES into CHAPTER I of the RESEARCH MANUSCRIPT (ASI format) (The Problem and Its Setting)

A lecture aid of Dr. Erlinda L. Natulla

CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

Hypothesis / ses

Scope and Limitations of the Study Operational Definition of Terms

Significance of the Study (Justification*)

Background of the Study

Describes and explains the current situation / or context of the subject to be focused on

- reviews the historical events related to the problem; the evolution of policies including legislation - highlights crucial events / factors related to the problem

Background of the Study


Discusses the development regarding the subject or problem - personal / community / cultural - institutional or organizational perspective Shows (discusses) that the subject is worth looking into (why the study is relevant)

comprehensiveclearconcise

What is already known about the subject

What the researcher would like to know

Processes of research problem identification and delineation

Defining what is the research problem to be answered is the first major decision step in the research process. Assumptions: * One has to be familiar with the subject s/he is working on. * Recognition of the subjective element in research as it enters into any of the steps of social research.

Initial guide questions in formulating a research problem:


What do I want to find out? What questions need to be answered by the research? Why is there a need to answer the research questions being raised? Who will be using the information? For what purposes?

Criteria in choosing & deciding on a research problem:

Personal interest (presupposes familiarity with phenomenon and drawing meaning from it)

Originality / novelty
Researchable (in practical terms data can be made available through a specific method)

Criteria in choosing a research problem

Relevant / potential contribution to present knowledge of the discipline Feasible (in relation to available resources) No ethical impediments

SOURCES OF RESEARCH PROBLEMS


Analysis of needs Intellectual curiosity Systematic search for a problem (readings, symposia, forums / fora) Prescription Researchers specialization, a specific area of knowledge Consideration of existing practice and needs in a particular field

Sources of research problems

Instructional program in graduate programs (as lectures / fora, discussions / symposia, reports, readings) Institutional research agenda

Repetition or extension of investigations Sequel studies or off-shoot studies

CONCEPTUALIZING THE RESEARCH PROBLEM


From theory (deductive process) to reality From examination of reality To generalization or hypothesis to be further validated (inductive process)

PHASES OF PROBLEM FORMULATION

Reviewing the literature


Phase 7

Selecting the general


Subject area

Phase 1

Constructing the hypothesis

Refining the subject area

Phase 2

Reviewing the literature

Relating the research problem To existing theory

Phase 6

Reviewing the literature

Phase 3

Reviewing the literature

Examining relationships between concepts

Phase 5

Refining the subject area

Phase 4

further

Reviewing the literature

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Characteristics of a good research problem:


1.

Specific, focused clearly defined terms, unambiguousdeals with a limited aspect of a certain phenomenon.

Variable is a facet of a phenomenon that changes in value*, can be observed, and can be measured. *the label used to denote a specific measurement of a variable; the different

attributes of a variable; the label of a category and is expressed in either word or number.

Characteristics of a good research problem


2. Intends to fill a research gap ..relevance ..originality and novelty

in relation to the subject and / or research design

Variable = is an attribute/characteristic that differs in quantity or quality among different persons, objects, times, places, etc. The different parenting experiences of child protection workers within their homes of origin would be a variable. If all the workers had been parented in the same way, parenting experience would not be considered a variable; it would be a constant.

Example of a research statement:


How may the effectiveness of Program A be evaluated in terms of client outcomes?
1. 2.

Has Program A increased clients capacity in making own decisions? Has Program A increased clients capability in problem solving?

Concept

Indicators

Variables

Working Definition

Intervention Positive effectiveness effect on client

Helpfulness of process

Client Increased outcomes capacity in making own decisions Increased capability of client in problem solving

Example of research statement: How may the modal personality of successful working married women be described?
1.

2.

To what extent are they (married women) aware of & consider their own individual needs? To what extent are they able to demonstrate the ability to assertively communicate their own individual needs to their significant others?

Concept Selfesteem

Indicators

Working Definition Awareness & Self Increased Consideration awareness awareness of of own needs own needs and feelings Awareness Selfof and Consideration Respect consideration of and respect of own for own needs feelings and feelings Ability to assertively communicate these to significant others

Variables

Concept Indicators Wealth Monthly income Total declared assets Perception of contentment & security

Variables Income Assets Level of well-being in terms of being provided for in relation to basic life provisions

Working Definition Not less than P/300, 000.00 cash income annually Not less than P/1,000, 000.00 total worth of properties Capacity to declare that above income and assets are adequate basic provisions for wellbeing and security

Other examples of variables:


(Human relations competencies) a. intrapersonal competence b. interpersonal competence c. ability to work in and with a team d. ability to work within an organization

(Learning environment)
a. curricular program/s and content b. teaching methods and styles c. student factor (study habits, discipline, motivation) d. co-curricular activities e. facilities f. social climate

Examples of research problem statements (Choose one between the two statements. Explain your decision.)

Set A How are human relations competencies (to include intrapersonal & interpersonal competencies, ability to work in & with a team, ability to work within an organization) related to genuinely effective leadership in the work setting? Is there or is there not a relationship between human relations competencies (to include intrapersonal & interpersonal competencies, ability to work in & with a team, ability to work within an organization) and genuinely effective leadership in the work setting?

Set B Of the various identified facets of the school learning environment (to include these dimensions: a. curricular program/s and content, b. teaching methods and styles, c. student factor inclusive of study habits, discipline, motivation, d. co-curricular activities, e. facilities, f. social climate) which variable is considered by the majority of students as the most important? How important are each of the various identified facets of the school learning environment (to include these dimensions: a. curricular program/s and content, b. teaching methods and styles, c. student factor inclusive of study habits, discipline, motivation, d. co-curricular activities, e. facilities, f. social climate) to majority of the students?

HYPOTHESIS
= a statement tentatively explaining certain behaviors, a phenomenon, or event. It states the researchers expectations concerning the relationship between (or among) the variables in the research problem. It is a testable statement of a potential relationship between two or more variables.

Hypotheses (Yegidis, Bonnie and Robert Weinback. 1996. Research Methods for Social Workers. MA: Allyn and Bacon.) If the literature review suggests a possible answer to a research question or some aspect of it, then it may be appropriate for the researcher to predict what will be found when data are subsequently collected and examined. The prediction is stated in the form of a hypothesis. a hypothesis can be thought of as a conclusion that flows logically from the review of literature or an apparent answer to a research question. Another way of viewing a hypothesis:

Hypotheses Some define a hypothesis in a way that describes its general construction as a statement of a relationship between or among variables. When researchers formulate a hypothesis, frequently they are convinced that there is evidence (reflected in existing knowledge) to suggest that two phenomena may be related in some specific way. They construct a carefully worded statement (the hypothesis) saying what they think that relationship is. They thereby suggest their intention to demonstrate evidence of its existence in their own research. pp. 73 - 74

fine-tuned research question stated in the form of hypothesis (ELN, 2002) the most specific statement of the problem. (Sevilla, et al., 1992)

A hypothesis can be directional (direction of possible relationship is referred to) or non-directional (no stated direction, neutral)

Characteristics of a good hypothesis:


1.

Hypotheses for relational studies should state in definite terms the plausible relationship between and among variables. For studies of cause and effect, the hypotheses may be stated in terms of cause and effect.

Examples: Among urban middle-income families living in City A, family spending habits would be related with the amount of family savings. In the City of A, urbanization has resulted in the disintegration of the traditional family structure.

Characteristics of a good
2. A hypothesis should be testable.

Fine-tune operational definition of terms.

Characteristics of a good
3. A good hypothesis follows the findings of previous studies.

Based on and / or dovetails with the findings of previous research studies (deductive).

Kinds of Hypotheses

The Null Hypothesis = states, in fact, that there is no association, relationship, effect, interaction between or among variables. States the opposite of what the researcher has logically come to see as some kind of preliminary conclusion or guess on what s/he intends to prove in a particular research. Example: Students in the Research Methods course who read course references, listen to and understand lectures & discussions, and have adequate writing abilities in the language used will not submit timely good research papers at the end of the semester.

Kinds of hypotheses

Alternative hypothesis = the operational statement of the research hypothesis. The expectation with regards to the research findings and conclusions based on existing theory. Example: Students in the Research Methods course who read course references, listen to and understand lectures, participates in the discussions, and have adequate writing abilities in the language used will submit timely good research papers at the end of the semester.

SCOPE & LIMITATIONS of the STUDY


Coverage (geographic, time, period of time study was done, research population, research method/s & techniques) Extent

depth as seen in levels of research: exploratory, descriptive, causative, experimental, alternative approach/es; Single variablemulti-variables Single.combination of / multiple methods

How to define terms (especially the terms used in the formulation of the general and specific statements of the research problem)

Operational definition of terms would have at least 2 components:


Universal / general meaning (would usually need technical / general references or authoritative sources) Particular meaning of term as used in the specific study

Examples: Awareness & consideration of own needs and feelings


= is the individuals psycho-social reality which demonstrates that the individual has an increasing awareness of & consideration of his/her own personal dynamics. In this study, it

will focus more on the individuals awareness of his/her own needs and feelings, his/her consideration of and respect for own needs and feelings, and the ability to assertively communicate these to significant others.

Perception of being well-provided for = an individuals self assessment in terms of provisions particularly his/her own

assessment based on not less than P/300, 000.00 cash income annually and not less than P/1,000, 000.00 valuation of total worth of properties, the person has the capacity to declare that his/her income and assets are adequate provisions for well-being and security.

SIGNIFICANCE of the STUDY


Clear statements specifying to whom (institutions, organizations, sectors / groups, individuals) the Study would be useful or relevant and significant; and WHY would it be so. Include significance / relevance / usefulness to the researcher him /herself (if this has not been discussed in the earlier discussion for Study Background (Setting / Context). If covered earlier already, just a summary statement.

Other constructs

Conceptual Framework = configures major concepts / variables involved in a specific research problem (after

the statement of Hypthesis/ses or at the end of Chapter I; can also be in Chapter II - Review of the Related Literature and Studies) Theoretical Framework = configures elements of a theory or a set of related theories involved in / important for a specific research problem (usually in
Chapter II)

Analytical Framework = a schema of concepts / constructs / variables that researcher will use or has used for analyzing data in Chapter IV (can be first
clarified in Chapters I or II; and explained further in Chapter III)

Interpretative Framework = a schema of concepts / variables / theoretical elements / theories that can be used for interpreting data in Chapter IV (can be
first clarified in Chapters I or II; and explained further in Chapter III)

Theoretical Orientation = established major theory/ies related to the research problem that the researcher envisions would be useful in the later analysis and interpretation of research data that will be obtained (This is contained in Chapter II)

These (Conceptual Framework / Theoretical Framework / Analytical Framework / Interpretative Framework) can be presented using diagrams, schemas, images, or pictures. The textual discussion and explanation can be before or after (or both) the diagram/image.