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CHAPTER 3

ALKENES & ALKYNES


Structure and Nomenclature
General formula for alkene, CnH2n and
alkyne, CnH2n-2
IUPAC nomenclature:
nomenclature alkenes and alkynes
are named like alkanes but the ending is
changed from “ane” to “ene” or “yne”.
Nomenclature of alkenes
Diene - 2 double bonds

Triene– 3 double bonds


Tetraene – 4 double bonds
Alkylattached to the alkene chain – the
lowest numbering is still given to alkene
chain.
Alkenes as substituents
Exercise
ALKYNES: Nomenclature
Naming Compounds with Both Double and
Triple Bond
Exercise:
Skeletal, Positional and Functional
Isomerism in alkenes and alkynes
Skeletal isomers – differ in the
arrangement of carbon atoms
Positional isomers – vary in the position of
an atom or group other than carbon or in
the position of a carbon-carbon double or
triple bond.
Functional isomers – exhibit structural
variations that place them in different
classes of organic compound
Example: C4H8
Positional isomer = 1-butene & 2-butene

Skeletal isomer = 2-methylpropene

Functional isomers = cyclobutane &


methylcyclopropane
EXERCISE:draw and name the possible
isomers of the C5H8 . Identify the
positional and skeletal isomers.
Functional Isomerism in
Organic Chemistry
 Functional isomers belongs to different classes of organic compounds because the posses different
functional group.
 Major organic functional groups are shown below:

 Example: alcohol (R—OH) and ether (R—O—R’), C3H8O

CH3CH2CH2OH and CH3OC2H5


an alcohol an ether

Alkene (C=C) and cycloalkane C4H8

CH3CH2CH=CH2 and
Exercise: C5H10O
GEOMETRIC ISOMERISM IN ALKENES

A) Cis-Trans Isomerism
B) The E-Z System
Units of Unsaturation in
Hydrocarbon
(Double bonds equivalent)