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Group members: Pan Zhe, Mathavan, Suresh, Kyaw Zin Naing,

Phyo Thu Htet, Tin May Tun and Theint Theint Khaing.
A solar cell is a device that converts sunlight directly into
electricity with no pollution. The other name for Solar cell
is Photovoltaic cell. The term "photovoltaic" comes from
the Greek : photo meaning "light", and "voltaic", from the
name of the Italian physicist Volta, after whom the unit
Volts is named. The modern age of solar power
technology began in 1954 when Bell Laboratories,
discovered that silicon doped with certain impurities was
able to generate electricity . Today it is a rapidly growing
and increasingly important renewable alternative to
conventional fossil fuel to generate
energy is a infinite source.
-Sunlight => electricity

-Solar cell or photovoltaic cell

-Modern age of solar cell began at 1950s

-Impurities + silicon => Electrical characteristics

-Renewable source

-Pollution free
1. Cleaning the raw wafer.
2. Four- point sheet resistant measurement.
3. Doping the raw wafer.
4. Etching
5. Ellipsometer measurement
6. Photolithography
7. Metallization
8. Lift-off process
9. Anti- reflective layer coating
10. Open the window for the sunshine to shine at the solar cell.
To remove contamination from the wafer.

Steps involved
5. Cleaning using chemical
6. Rinse using DI water
7. Spin dry
(MAKE SURE during rinse and dry
process the speed cannot over
2000rpm, if not wafer will fly away.)
Four-point probe sheet resistant

• The four point probe is use to

measure the resistivity of
wafers and crystal.

• It is also used to measure the

resistivity of thin layers of
dopants added into the wafer
surfaces by the dopant Sheet resistance formula
processes. Rs=4.53V/I
4.53 is constant(arises
from the probe spacing.
Unit; ohm per square
4-point probe measurement

• We have chosen 5 points in a wafer to

measure sheet resistance to make sure all
the bare wafers are in specification range.

• Our specific resistance range is around 100

to 200 ohm.
4 2 5

able of 4 point probe measurement of Wafer.

Wafer Point 1 Point 2 Point 3 Point 4 Point 5

(ohm) (ohm) (ohm) (ohm) (ohm)
1 0.9K 0.9K 0.9K 0.8K 0.8K

2 0.305K 0.3K 0.4K 0.305K 0.305K

3 0.4K 0.344K 0.345K 0.4K 0.35K

4 159.4 159.4 159.2 158 161.2

5 155.1 148.8 153.1 153.3 152.8

6 127.6 124.6 128.9 130.2 134

7 160 163.7 165.5 167.2 166.3

8 133.7 128.6 132.4 132.3 131.7

Dopant used: Phosphorous

Arrange the wafers and dopants

alternatively in the quartz boat.
Equipment used: Furnace

Purpose: Doping is the process

of using high temperature to
distribute dopant from the region
of high concentration to region of
low concentration in the wafer to
form p-n junction.
Sub-steps of doping are:

Pre-deposition: Saturate the expose wafer surface with lots of dopants.
Drive-in: Drive the dopant to further diffuse deeper into the substrate.
Purpose: To selectively remove
unwanted materials from the top
layer of the wafer surface.
Basic steps of etching:
• Dispersion
• Reaction
• Removal
Major types of etching:
7. Wet etching – Use liquid
chemicals to remove unwanted
8. Dry etching – Use a plasma to
remove the unwanted materials.
Etching process
The problems we are facing after doping
- There is a phosphorous glass layer will be formed on our
wafer surface after doping process.
- This layer will effect our process of making solar cell.
- Therefore , we should etch away the phosphorous by
Ellipsometry is a technique for
measuring the thickness and index
of refraction of a wide range of
Typically used for film thickness less
than 100 angstroms in thickness.

5. Making non-contact
6. Nondestructive measurement.
Photolithography process

• Purpose of photolithography • Resist coating

To transfer the circuit patterns from a - Resist coating is the first step of
mask to a light sensitive layer on the photolithography process. The wafer
wafer using UV light. Photolithography usually goes through priming before a
defines the circuitry area on the wafer layer of light sensitive resist is coated
for future selective processing. onto it using a spin bowl.
Three Basic Steps Exposure process
1. Resist coating. The purpose of exposure is to transfer
2. Exposure. the image of the mask onto the surface
3. Developing. of a resist coated wafer.
It is one of the last steps in the
photolithography process. The
purpose of the develop step is to
uncover the patterns from the mask
exposure on the resist coated wafer.
Resist coating application
• The spinning vacuum chuck is one of
the central components of a resist
dispensing system.
• The diameter of the chuck should be
slightly smaller than the diameter of
the wafer.
Spin speed
Higher speeds produce thinner coatings.
Slower speeds result in thinker coatings.
Extremely high spin speeds may also cause
excessive drying which can cause
striations in the resist.
Extremely slow speeds may result in a less -spinning speed is around
uniform coating. 1000-1500 rpm
Spin time
The wafer should be spun for an additional -acceleration is 150 r/s
15-20 seconds to obtain optimum -timing 30 seconds
uniformity and to further dry the resist.
Resist Baking
There are three baking steps, namely
Soft bake- Immediately after resist coating
(to avoid particles contamination) to
drive out solvents and to improve
Post Exposure Bake – Immediately after
exposure of resist. To drive out
residual solvents.
Hard Bake – Immediately after developing
of resist. To drive out remaining
For our project specification range for
baking is
-temperature set to 90`C
-timing 1.5-2 mins.
Exposure process

• One of the most important steps in

the photolithography process is
mask alignment.
• The mask is aligned with the
wafer, so that the pattern can be
transferred onto the wafer surface.
There are three primary exposure
• Contact
• Proximity
• Projection
For exposure our specification timing
is 25-30seconds.

• Once the wafer has been cleaned,

dried, primed, coated and exposed,
the next step is to develop the pattern
on the wafer surface.
Today, there are several different methods
used for developing
• Immersion.
• Spray.
• Puddle.
For our specification range for developing
is- for new chemical will take about 20
seconds but for old chemical meaning
that is almost 2 days using for
developing process, so we need to
change the time setting depend on the
chemical solution weakness.
Metallization Process
Purpose of metallization during making solar cell:
To deposit aluminum layer on both side of solar cell.
the reason: semiconductor is high resistance material and poor
conductivity so we should deposit both side aluminum to conduct
Thermal Evaporator

It is to depositing Aluminum layer into the wafer.

Aluminum should be place here.

Wafer should be place firmly on this position.

What is lift-off process

"Lift-off" is a simple, easy method for patterning

films that are deposited. A pattern is defined on
a substrate using photo-resist. A film, usually
metallic, is blanket-deposited all over the
substrate, covering the photo-resist and areas in
which the photo-resist has been cleared. During
the actual lifting-off, the photo-resist under the
film is removed with solvent, taking the film with
it, and leaving only the film which was deposited
directly on the substrate .
Ideal Liftoff Process
• Substrate

• Spin photo-resist

• Pattern photo-resist

• Deposit

• Remove photo-resist
Problem in process:
• 1. If sidewalls are not
perpendicular, the metal is likely to
be continuous. There is no
separation between the undesired
and desired metal.

• 2. Metal on substrate doesn’t fall

perfectly flat. Parts can also pile up
and cling to the resist sidewalls.
After the lift, unpredictable results
will occur.
• Solution
Create an overhang in the resist profile using chlorobenzene.
Structure of 2 types semiconductor
(impure silicon)
P-type silicon N-type silicon

- For P-type silicon these blue color are holes ,and unstable because
there are no electrons inside, so very easy to absorb electrons and
form P-type semiconductor.
- For N-type silicon there is one extra electron around yellow atoms
that means these electrons are very active, and form N-type
How the solar cell work?
A solar cell consists of two layers of semiconductor, one
p-type and the other n-type, sandwiched together to form
a 'p - n junction'.

When particles of light ('photons') are absorbed by the semiconductor the

electrons and holes near the p - n junction are swept across in opposite
directions by the action of the electric field and others diffuse towards the
junction to replace them. This separation of charge induces a voltage across
the device. By connecting the device to an external circuit, the electrons are
able to flow and this flow of electrons is what we call electricity.
As the surface of solar cell can easily reflected lights so a anti-reflection later
must be coat on this surface to reduce photons losses.

Anti-reflection coating
Anti-reflection coating is a type of optical coating applied to surface of solar
cell to reduce reflection , light reflection reduce ,means optical losses
reduce that increase the absorption .
Normally there are 2 types surface:
1.flat surface
2.texturing surface

A square based pyramid which forms the surface In SEM photo

of an appropriately textured crystalline silicon solar cell.

Surface texturing
Surface texturing, either in combination with an
anti-reflection coating or by itself, can also be
used to minimise reflection.
Calculate the efficiency of a solar cell.
a) Put the solar cell in a circuit that results in maximum
(maximum volts x amps).
b) Measure the cell and calculate the surface area in
c) Calculate the power output per m squared (PS)

PS = Power output

Calculate the efficiency of the cell using the equation

%%Efficiency = Energy input x 100%
Energy output

% Efficiency = PS x 100%
Example Our Wafer Voltage is 0.35 V While the Current is 2.14 mA. How do we find the Power
Power = Voltage X Current P = V X I
Power ?? = 0.35V X 0.0000214 A
= 0.00000743 W